Pantelis Vatikiotis & Zafer Yörük
New media and social movements in Europe and the Middle East
The paper draws on the role of social media in protest movements emerged in 2011 in the Middle East and Europe. Various theoretical analyses in both macro- and micro- level assess these movements in terms of the determinant role of either the ‘agents’ or the ‘structures’. Both lenses have enabled an overall account of the movements along optimistic as well as pessimistic perspectives in regard to a social, political, or media (internet) revolution. The paper gives priority to the dialectical relationship between agents (subjects) and structures (objects), evaluating thus the nexus of media, movements, and societ(ies) along its contradictions. In this context, the paper probes into the social and political dynamics of the relevant uprisings; it critically evaluates the relation between grassroots action and online interaction; and, it assess the development of any strong forms of political practice and the production of a social imaginary along these protest movements.