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Kitap İncelemeleri

Yeni Osmanlılardan Jön Türklere Basının Siyasal Fikirleri İfade Etme Aracı Olarak Kullanılması / Murat Can Başaran

Abstract

New Ottomans movement was important because it was the  first steps of freedom movements or the beginning point of freedom movements. These movements started in the  late 18th century. They actually appeared because of conditions of at that time, defects of social institutions and some changings in society with the beginning of 19 th century. However, the method of movements were different and they used  press. They were a group of intellectual people but they were organised group of intellectual people. What I mean that, New Ottomans were the first group of  people who used press in order to criticize the government. After New Ottomans, Jon Turks came into picture. The important point of this movements was these people  who were sent to Europe as second generation. Their difference from the first generation, they had opportunity to know European ideas and their life style by seeing there instead of only hearing. After they came to Ottoman Empire, they wanted to use their knowledge they took from Europeans and they started to criticize conditions of at that time, Sultans and their governments. They also  talked about how Ottoman Empire was rescued from these negative conditions. They published many publications and their publications were sometimes closed but they published again again by using sometimes  names which were very similar to their closed publications. However, their intensions were limeted because of lack of ideas or their ideas which were taken from Europeans did not meet or fit Ottoman society. After these kinds of reasons, they started to seperate from each other and they had some leavings or divorces in their group. As a result, from New Ottomans to Jon Turks, they used press in order to criticize Sultans, governments and the system or regime. They also tried to rescue Ottoman Empire and thanks to them, these ideas and problems were started to talk in Ottoman society.

Before showing of New Ottomans and Jon Turks’ expressing of their political ideas, I want to say something about conditions of at that time. The reform movements were started because of some events which were Ottoman –Russiawars, French revolution and foreign political events which evolved in the basis of French revolution. These reform movements were affected from these events at that time. Especially, result of Ottoman –Russiawars caused to Küçük Kaynarca Agreement andOttoman Empirelost control over Crimean.Ottoman Empirethought and felt that we had to correct these bad conditions really and they started to make reforms. However, making these reforms were very hard to realize because when we especially think opposition of Kapı Kulu soldiers and others, these reform movements were very hard to do. However, there were two main important events at that time which were French revolution and being thronged of III. Selim who was good at analyze of European and Ottoman problems. III. Selim was important because he decided what kind of reform type was suitable forOttoman Empirebefore his reign and he started to correspond with XVI. Louis. When he thronged, he made some revolutions which were about military. The result of these military reforms, he made new military schools opened and these military schools grew up young officers. These people were against being not progressiveness and conservatism or fundamentalism. In addition, some of other reforms affected intellectuals with these civil – soldiers. Their face turned to Western and they started to question these negative conditions. They had enough accumulation to do these with respect to their educations or other equipments. There were some other people who questioned the negative circumstances but these people used some other tools which were not used before. These people  were firstly New Ottomans and Jon Turks who came after New Ottomans (affected from New Ottomans). These people went toEuropein their education term. They learnt European languages and life style. They also learnt the thinking movements of Europeans at that time. After they turned to thier country, they started to use these ideas in their own country with respect to reforms. As a result, these people started to create a new atmosphere inIstanbulespecially. They started to talk about negative conditions of at that time and criticized the government by using the press which was not used by other groups or people before.

            ‘’ An organized group of intellectual people started to criticize Ottoman Empire openly and sharply. In order to say these ,they used press for the first time.” (1) These words come from Şerif Mardin. Tanzimat Fermanı has many results with respect to different perspectives. When we look at  journalism, the result is that a group of people started a new stream which was against the outcomes of Tanzimat and this stream is called as New Ottomans Stream. New Ottomans Stream was the first point of freedom movements. At that time, there were social changes and new institutions with respect to western. They prepared a ground or point to New Ottomans. In 1865, there were six young who attended a dinner which was arranged in Belgrad Forest. They decided that they started to be against conditions which were about Ottoman Empire and were also against policies of Ottoman governments. In order to perform these aims, they found an organization in the name of Ittifak – Hamiyyet. The aims of organization were that there should have been a new administration order which was based on constitutional instead of absolute administration order. According to them, there should have been freedom in Ottoman political system and the  system should have also needed to have a parliament which could monitor execution and check the authority of Sultan in the constitutional regime. In 1867, a group of people who were Mustafa Fazıl, Ziya Bey, Namık Kemal, Ali Suavi, Mehmed Bey, Reşad Bey ve Rifat Bey came togather in Mustafa Fazıl Pasha’ s home. Pasha had sent a letter to Sultan and he said something about reforms. (Mustafa Fazıl Pasha talked about economical conditions, officer corruptions, fiscal depression etc. and he gave advice to Sultan which is about passing to constitutional regime. In addition, this letter was an example for Jon Turks who came after New Ottomans). These group of people accepted these reform ideas as principles of their organization. This organization was also called as New Ottomans Cemiyeti and the head of this organization was Ziya Bey. They published a newspaper (Muhbir) in order to express their ideas and head of Muhbir was Ali Suavi. However, when Muhbir published, it turned into Islamist understandings fast and solidly. Mustafa Fazıl Pasha was surprised. This changing caused  a problem between Ali Suavi and others. Because of this reason, Namık Kemal came into picture via Mustafa Pasha’s order and he started to publish Hürriyet but this togetherness lasted shortly. With becoming of grand vizier Mahmud Nedim Pasha, the general forgiveness was announced and New Ottomans turned to Istanbul. After this event, Namık Kemal came into picture as a leader of movement. Namık Kemal did not have any chances to publish a newspaper because he criticized the government about Eastern Question in Tasvir – i Efkar  and he was banned because of this criticism. At that time, he wrote about Salahaddin’s biography who was a Islamic hero because there were Islamic ideas and New Ottomans were affected these ideas. New Ottomans started a theory which was based on Islamic union and conditions of term were influential as well. At that time, Prussia defated France and France lost its influence over Middle East. Russia started to reinforce over Ottoman territorial areas, Balkan nationalism and fragmentation movements. New Ottomans realized about Russian intentions and influences over Balkans. With these and dominations of Western countries, New Ottomans shifted to Islam Union. According to Mardin, ‘’ New Ottomans were against Tanzimat and they wanted to have freedom (According to Ali and Fuat pashas, giving more freedom to society was not good idea because their aim was only to rescue Ottoman Empire and they said that freedom only came true with constitutional parliament. ’’ (2) According to New Ottomans, Tanzimat was a cultural imitation and it would damage to Muslim society. Besides of term conditions, that’s why, New Ottomans wanted to construct their democratical understandings which were based on sharia. However,  especially, Namık Kemal ‘s play ‘ Vatan Yahut Silistre ‘ which was about patriotism caused to make them forced to leave from Istanbul again and they were exiled. In 1876, being dethorned of Sultan Abdulaziz, some of New Ottomans turned to Istanbul. The new Sultan used and announced ‘vatan’ and ‘hürriyet’ etc. in the first declaration which were used by New Ottomans before. We can see that New Ottomans movements did not continue as whole and they were affected from internal and external conditions. As a result, although they were affected these kinds of conditions, they did not give up criticism of the system and thanks to them, developments which emerged in Ottoman were talked in the public sphere. In New Ottomans leadership, journalism and publishing started to emerge. With these journalism and publishing remained as heritage to Jon Turks who came after New Ottomans.

In 1890, Ottoman literacy started to shape and being read of foreign press started to increase at that time. With these developments, Ottoman newspapers started to be like European newspapers. Ottoman servants started to receive more information what happened in Ottoman Empire. Jon Turks had never had a deep theory or ideology. Because of this reason, they tried to overcome these lacks. They took European ideas which were argued at that time but they took this, the popularized version of them. In addition, they pointed out that they had not got main ideas in Abdülhamid’s term. They had to use some political and social world ideas which were developed by outside of revolutionarists. We could see the origins of Turkism ideas there as the parallel of birth of Ittihat ve Terakki.

New Ottomans’s aim was to make parliament constructed in order to make power shared. Because of this kind of desire, they were dissolved by Abdulhamid after 1877. At that time, there were 2 problems which were Abdülhamid’s term pressure over press and being not understood details of political theories well. What I mean that they escaped Europe, then they had to produce theories from there and they understood that these were very hard. They would actually see Abdülhamid as father. However, this father who could not perform his own fatherness duties and there was also the term of Ittihat ve Terakki. Before Armenian events, Murat Bey’s student offered him presidency for Ittihat ve Terakki which was found newly. However, he rejected and gave advice to his students not to do something against government because he did not want to harm sultanate. This kind of understanding takes place even today. People who give vote to right parties think that if they give vote to leftist parties, they suppose that they harm to Islamic values which are about understanding of hand responsibility. What I mean that if this government make false law and if they give vote to this government, they feel that they were responsible for this false law. However, this hand responsibility understanding is based on not political. It is based on basis of sin or religious basis. Yes, people are responsible for their vote but they give vote to a party to make this party better the conditions. This understanding causes to enter into religion and political each other. On the other hand, this kind of understanding also takes place in people who give vote to leftist parties and their difference from rightists they suppose to harm to Ataturk and his principles instead of sin or other religious basis. Murat Bey also had these kinds of understandings and he did not want to harm sultanate. After that he accepted to be part of Jon Turks in order to prevent from these kinds of mistakes. However, after a while, their understandings which were about how we save Ottoman Empire did not fit each other. Murat Bey would offer that we should give political compromises in order to save Empire but Jon Turks did not accept these understandings. They defended in the point of freedom and homeland. They were separated each other with these differences and Murat Bey published his own program in Mizan newspaper. The main feature of this program was all of Ottomans would be equal without any religion and identity difference in front of the law. At the first page of Mizan, he showed what movement of newspaper was in the presentation part. He criticized newspapers which were published by that time. He said that those newspapers only cared about Istanbul public and others which were called as ‘taşra’ left out. Another theme which took place at Mizan was about Europeans and their term which they used about Turks with respect to barbarism. Murat also gave importance to using ‘Turk’ term which was used by New Ottomans before. He criticized Sultan Army by saying that there were no Turkish soldier in it and there were full of Circassians, Albenians, Arabians. However, this comment was criticized and protested by these ethnic groups. In order to protect and overcome these protests, Murat Bey tried to write about something but the point was that Ottoman Empire started to lose its own Islamic structure to gather around all of ethnic groups. In addition, Murat Bey wrote about the national culture and its protection like being said by New Ottomans but Murat Bey and New Ottomans were separated in the details. New Ottomans used protection of national culture as being rejected of sharia and disappearance of Islamic structure. What I mean that things which should have been protected was national culture or spirit instead of Islamic things. Moreover, according to Murat Bey, reforms should have been not only performed for specific ethnic groups. They should have covered the whole Empire because giving importance to specific groups were mistake which was done by all Empires almost and in order to provide to work reforms, the only way was that Ittihat ve Terakki should have been supported by all of ethnic groups.

Another newspaper which was important for Jon Turks was Osmanlı Gazetesi. This newspaper was published by Abdullah Cevdet Karlıdağ, Abdullah Cevdet , İshak Sükûti, Tunalı Hilmi, Nuri Ahmet, Halil Muvaffak. Before the movement against Sultan, they sent their requests to Sultan like Murat Bey who published Mizan. In the first issues of Ottomans, they used a simple language in order to reach more people and they used this idea as promise because other newspapers (Meşveret and Mizan) which were propaganda tool for Jon Turks was not enough to publish in a simple language before this newspaper. Ottomans which talked to public was in Rumelians who were well – educated in the middle class. These groups were different from groups which were talked by New Ottomans. They wanted to talk like people who were like them in Bab – ı Ali people. What I mean that they wanted to convince the elites in society. However, Ottomans wanted to reach and persuade more people. However, after a while, Jon Turks and public had a problem. Jon Turks started not to trust to public. When Jon Turks criticized Sultan, these people started to reject because they thought that these criticisms by Jon Turks damaged to caliphate place. After losing of Cretan, Jon Turks felt anger and disappointment to Europe states like Murat Bey in Mizan and they criticized them. However, these criticisms were heavier than Mizan’s. With these criticisms, people started to think that European justice and humanitarian were based on hypocrisy and lying. With respect to Ottomans, behaviors of West were like Crusade campaigns and these campaigns were still going on. After 1908, Jon Turks started to have connection with Germans and they started to be German supporter. On the other hand, they criticized Germans. They did not accept the debts which were taken from Germany and soldiers who started to appear in Ottoman army. There is an important point for Jon Turks in Osmanlı Gazetesi. They did not give a person who was not a soldier like Murat Bey any more and these affected the changing of methods to say something about a topic. Osmanlı Gazetesi sometimes wanted Ottomans to make revolution. Until 1900, these kinds of propagandas could not be successful but this idea tried to be performed in Prince Sebahattin term and Jon Turks started to separate from each other with him.

When we look at another important publication organ for Jon Turks ,it is Meşveret by Ahmet Rıza. Jon Turks who lived  in Geneva in Switzerland and were part of military side of Ittihat ve Terakki. After Murat Bey returned to Ottoman Empire, he had opportunity to express his own ideas  in Meşveret. However, Ahmet Rıza and others had different from each other because Ahmet Rıza was more laicist than others and other Jon Turks who lived in Geneva thought and understood that Sultan bought our publications. What I mean that they started to use this being bought by Sultan as a blackmail tool. However, Ahmet Rıza ‘s writings were not for sale. Because of this reason, Ahmet Rıza started to change his own ideas or  strategies and tried to use shorter long term propaganda which was, for example, about  officers in Macedonia and mobilization of them. However, there is an important point and although Ahmet Rıza was laicist, he used and defended Islam in his writings as well. According to him, yes, he did not give importance to Islamic dogmas but he accepted and defended the importance of being together of buclic by using Islamic structure. He also defended Islam by being against barbarism of Islam. He said that being said barbarism of Islam by Europeans were a kind of propaganda which was done by European missionaries. He wanted to show that Islam was not barbarians religion and he also added something. According to him, Islam was not an enemy for republican regime and it was also accepted as a leader  who were elected by Millet Meclisi. (3) However, after this ‘cumhuriyet ‘ topic, he did not mention about this topic almost and he started to write about Meşrutiyet problems in Ottoman Empire. There was also Turkish version of Meşveret between 1895 – 1897 (Mizan was announced as official Turkish publication organ by Ittihat ve Terakki in 1897). For Turkish version of Meşveret, complains were very important and this understanding continued after close of Turkish version of Meşveret until 1920’s when Atatürk came into picture.

There is another important publication organ which was İçtihad by Abdullah Cevdet. In 1890s, Abdullah Cevdet and his friends were arrested and exiled. Abdullah Cevdet could be able to rescue from exile and escaped from Fizan  but his friends were not lucky like him. In order to rescue their friends, Cevdet and  Jon Turks who lived in Geneva started to publish Osmanlı Gazetesi and they achieved this rescue by forcing to make government lawed  partial amnesty. Paris International Social Education Congress in 1900, he said that in order to provide to develop of our country, we had to improve Turkish peoples’ cultural level. In order to do this, we had to publish  a journal which was parallel to Western streams and we had to manage this journal from a new printing office. In 1904, this new printing office was established with Ahmet Celalettin Paşa’s  conribution and İçtihad was started to be published. Abdullah Cevdet published a poet which underestimated Sultan. Because of this reason, he was deported from Switzerland and he went to Egypt until 1911. In 1913 he came into picture again and he underestimated again but this was different because he underestimated Jon Turks’ synthesis which tried to combine Islamism and Turkism. When Turkish republic was announced, his courts were stil going on. When we look at republic term of İçtihad, it was published in Roman alphabet. At that time, İçtihad tried to process laicism policy and we can say that there was a difference from Jon Turks and İçtihad tried to be pioneer of Atatürk’s revolutions. At this point, Ahmet Cevdet and Mustafa Kemal Atatürk had the same kinds of perspectives almost but not all of them were the same. Both of them believed materialism and tried to find  its facts out of the religion. Another similarity was about education. Ahmet Cevdet believed increasing of education level of the society. His idea was based on not having or seeing any rebellions in the future. In order to prevent from rebellion, we should increase the natural power of the society and this increasing of the natural of the power was based on education. I think his biggest idea was rejection of Ottoman nation idea. According to him, there were not any nations in the world which used nation name as its own founder. Yes, he is right because Ottoman Empire was a unique example. For example, if you are Habsburg dynasty  in Serbia at that time, you say that I am Serbian who is based on Habsburg dynasty but you do not say that I am Habsburgian or something like that. What I mean that he showed to us that one day people or society might have given up being Ottoman idea.

The last publication organ which was used by Jon Turks was Şura-yı Ümmet. This journal was established by Samipaşazade Sezai and Bahaeddin Şakir in Egypt and they published it by publishing a program in 1902. In this program, Jon Turks tried to change their ideas in 1890s. Before 1900s, they wanted reforms to be spread to the whole Ottoman territory and they also wanted to have this but in the name of being Ottoman. They thought that all of different groups could be combining into a single flag easily. However, they understood that this single flag understanding was very hard to achieve because of nationalism movements at that time and in oder to do this, we had to make preparation and all of studies should have been managed consciously. They also wanted people to aware the economical issues. For example, they attracted attention to the attempt of invasion of Midilli by French Navy in order to pay debts to French bankers and the other example was the German colony to Anatolia   in the name of railway privilege. They tried to show people these events and their backgrounds. They said to all people that everything should not have been waited by government and they tried to insert this understanding to the society. According to Şura-yı Ümmet, Turkish peoples’ laziness did not happen because of being Muslim Especially with effects of sects; people did not behave with respect to their own desires. These effects could be only fixed by giving more chance to be used of more human will to people. This understanding was important for them because beliefs which were restricted human will caused to polical laziness as well and people thought that we were subject to Sultan. They thought that being Sultan’s servants was a kind of normal thing. They also criticized the government because Ottoman government started to use ‘Müslüman’ instead of ‘Ottomans’. They implied that Sultan was under German Kaizser’s influence because German Kaizer wanted Sultan to behave in this way by having more power from Islam World by using Sultan’s caliphate. In addition, they wanted people to increase their cultural level but they wanted to use in order to create their own and shaped society which was based on people who took more responsibility in the political life. They were attached to this new society with strong ties. However, they faced some difficulties and one of them was that there was no common Ottoman language. They had to choose Turkish and this meant that this was only done behalf of one ethnic group automatically. There were two different attitudes or behaviors for Turks: One of them was that Turkish people were criticized for not wanting to be part of Western civilizations. Another one was that when people were not against Sultan strongly, Şura-yı Ümmet protected these people or society by saying proud or arrogant Anatolian villager and they used these Anatolian villagers image.

In conclusion, Ottoman intellectuals gave importance how we rescued our state because they saw that Ottoman Empire was about dying. This kind of serious event caused them to choose political ideas and movements in order to rescue and protect their empire. The first generation of Tanzimat knew Europe less than the second generation of Tanzimat. The first generation knew Europe from foreigners who told about Europe but the second generation had opportunity to see Europe closely because they were sent to Europe for education and some of them were exiled or escaped to Europe. That’s why, the second generation knew Europe more than the first one. According to them, Europe was a place which should have been learnt firstly. After their learning studies of Europe, they wanted to apply this knowledge in their country and they started to question the conditions of Ottoman Empire by using the press. They started to publish newspapers; journals etc. and criticize the government in them. Their publications were sometimes closed because of, for example, press regulations in 1864 and 1867. Even they lost their newspapers or journals, they did not give up and they continued to publish them by giving different names or registering on another people. They did not give up criticism of circumstances of at that time. They did not also give up offering rescue solutions for Ottoman Empire. They had to do these because social and political institutions of Ottoman Empire were almost about stopping. Because of these reasons, these intellectuals wanted Ottoman Empire to modernize. These modernization or reform movements sometimes caused to face with Ottoman society because society sometimes did not want to welcome and intellectuals faced to the traditional structure of Ottoman society. They sometimes were exiled or forced them escaped from Ottoman territory because of their criticisms which were sometimes extreme for government and Sultan. However, these critics were very important for founders of the new republic because these criticisms, reactions of society, reactions of Sultan and government gave experiences which were one of the biggest remaining as heritage from Ottoman Empire. Maybe, the founders of the new republic used these heritages while they were founding and constructing the new republic. Maybe they made revolutions or reforms more radical by using these heritages from Ottoman Empire and its intellectuals.

Extra Information Part : *

Matbuat Nizamnamesi (basın tüzüğü)  1864 ve  Ali kararname :1867

“-Ruhsatsız gazete çıkarmak,

– Gazetenin imzalı bir sayısını ilgili devlet dairesine göndermemek,

– Hükümetten gelen resmi yazıları yayınlamamak,

– Devletin iç güvenliğini bozacak suçlardan birinin ic­rası için bazı kişilerin kışkırtılması,

– Genel adaba ve milli ahlaka aykırı yazılar,

– Padişah ve ailesini tahkir ve hükümranlık haklarına taarruz sayılabilecek yazılar,

– Bakanlara dokunacak sözler yazılması,

– Dost hükümdarlara dokunacak deyimler kullanılması,

– Meclisleri, mahkemeleri ve devletçe kurulan heyetleri kötüle­yecek yazılar,

– Devlet memurlarının aleyhinde kötü yazı yazmak,

– Yabancı büyükelçileri, orta elçileri, maslahatgüzarları kötülemek,

– Halkı kötülemek.”

* Padişah, 20 Eylül 1877’de yayınlanan sıkıyönetim – ilk basın sansürü – Nizamnamesi’yle gerekli gördüğü zamanlarda gazeteleri kapatma yetkisini eline almıştır.

İçtihad :

Abdullah Cevdet’in Ahmet Celalettin Paşha’nın yardımıyla kurduğu matbaada çıkarttığı dergidir.Dergi, İçtihad’ı çağrıştıran Cehd, İşhad, İştihad gibi isimler adı altında Cenevre,  Mısır ve İstanbul’da çıkmıştır. Bu gazetenin önemi, Atatürk ‘ün bazı düşünceleriyle Abdullah Cevdet ‘in bazı düşüncelerinin birbirine örtüşüyor olmasıdır.

Meşveret :

Ahmet Rıza ve Cenevre ‘de yaşayan Jon Turks tarafından çıkarılmıştır. Gazetenin Türkçe ve Fransızca olmak üzere 2 versiyonu vardır. 1895 – 1897 yılları arası 15 günde 1 olarak  çıkmıştır. Mizan gazetesinin resmi Türkçe yayın organı olmasıyla yayın hayatı son bulmuştur.

 

Mizan Gazetesi:

 1886’da haftalık mizan gazetesi çıkarılmıştır Bu gazeteyi  Murat Bey çıkarmıştır Halkın okuma alışkanlığının artmasına yardımcı olmuştur. Sansür döneminde bile hükümet eleştirilmiştir. Gazetede  iç ve dış politika, ekonomi, eğitim gibi alanlardaki sorunlara çözümler sunulmuştur. Murat Bey’in kendi programını yayınlamısyla da Jon Turks ayrışmaya doğru gitmiştir. 1897 ‘de kapatılmıştır.

Muhbir:

Ali Suavi ile  1867 yılı Ocak ayında çıkmaya başladı ve hükümete karşı oldukça olumsuz bir tutum aldı. 8 ve 10 Şubat 1867 tarihlerinde, Mustafa Fazıl Paşa’nın Sultan Abdülaziz’e yazdığı açık mektup Muhbir’de yayımlandı; bu da gazetenin muhalif tutumunu açıkça kanıtlıyordu. Tasvir-i Efkar’ın ardından,  Ali Suavi de, Girit Rumları ile başa çıkamadığı, Sırp isyanını bastırmadığı, büyük devletlerin müdahalesini engelleyemediği için Babıali’yi şiddetle kınıyordu.

Osmanlı Gazetesi :

Abdullah Cevdet Karlıdağ,  Abdullah Cevdet, İshak Sükûti, Tunalı Hilmi, Nuri Ahmet, Halil Muvaffak  tarafından 1897’de çıkartılmaya başlanmıştır. Genel olarak 2. Abdülhamid rejimini eleştirmişlerdir. Bu eleştiriler meşrutiyet heyecanı ve deneyimsizliklerinden dolayı acemice olmuştur ve yazdıkları makalelere de yansımıştır. Gazete Jon Turks arasında başlayan ayrışmalar döneminde çıkmıştır ve cemiyete yeni bir soluk getirmiştir. 1904 yılında son sayısı basıldıktan sonra kendi kendine yayın hayatı sona ermiştir.

Şura-yı Ümmet :

 Bahaeddin Şakir ile Samipaşazade Sezai tarafından Mısır’da kurulmuştur ve daha sonra İstanbul, Selanik ve Paris’te yayın hayatına  devam etmiştir. Döneminin bütün kültür sorunları dergide yer almıştır ama asıl amaçları toplumu bilinçlendirerek yeni bir şekil vermektir. Günlük ve aylık olmak üzere çeşitli şekillerde yayınlanmıştır.

 

Tasvir- i efkar:

1.  ve 2. meşrutiyet, cumhuriyet dönemlerinde yayın hayatına devam etmiştir. Şinasi ‘biz halk için haber yaparız’ diyor burada. Bu yönden Avrupadakilere benziyor. İçinde ilk kez halkın anlayacağı dil de var. İlk kez ‘ulus’ anlamında ‘millet’ kavramı burada kullanılıyor. Gazetenin eğitici rolü üzerinde duruyor çünkü gazetenin kamuoyu oluşturma gücünü de biliyor. Daha sonra gazetenin başına Namık Kemal geçiyor ve ‘şark meselesi’ ile ilgili yazısından sonra Paris’ e kaçıyor ve yerine Recaizade Mahmut Ekrem geçiyor. 1925’ de İstiklal Mahkemesi tarafından muhalefet vb. nedenlerden kapatılıyor.

Bibliography:

1. Uludağ Üniversitesi Fen Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi,Year  8 Publication Number 13, p. 27

2. The Structuration of Community – Society in the Ottoman Modernisation: The Case of New Ottoman Thought, Yıldırım, p. 7

3. Jon Turksin Siyasi Fikirleri, 1895-1908 ,Mardin, p.138

 

*’Extra Information Part ’ Aysun Akan’ ın ‘ Türk Medya Tarihi ‘ ders notlarından alınmıştır.

**Şerif MARDIN’s books which are Jon Turksin Siyasi Fikirleri, 1895-1908 and The Genesis of Young Ottoman Thought are used as book review project in the name of Being Used of Press as A Tool of Expressing Political Ideas from New Ottomans to Jon Turks.

 

Murat Can Başaran

Takvim

August 2020
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