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Gender in Primary School’s Textbook: Determine The Perception of Gender Differences / Damla Özkan

Background Statement and Central Research Question

Gender has a different meaning from the biological sex. Gender is determined through the social and cultural for this reason the context of the gender is change society to society and culture to culture with this aspect gender not only determine the differences of sex but also determine the inequalities power to women or men.

In the society, the human learn the values, living skills that are learned with the process of the socialization, despite a widespread the role of women and men are known with the naturally (inherently), those are learned subsequently vested, those are change culture to culture and society to society also change time to time because change of the economic system rather relationship of production.

According to looking of widespread perspective; Basic aim of the school is being a equipped person in the society and transmitted the cultural values of society. School uses some medium to achieve the aim. These mediums are teacher and textbook. When looking from the perspective of teacher, textbook is complementary of the program also the basic source of the classroom practices, when looking from the student’s perspective it is a source of learning.

The need of the changing syllabus in the education system is done with the differentiation of social structure and the improvement of the disciplines, changing of students.  In the Turkey there is really improvement and extended in the syllabus. According to Althusser (1994) education as one of the ideological state devices, in line with the social and economic relations needs, social division of labor is reproduced and formed the citizen through the division of labor. The important instrument of the nation state to continue the existed cultural and ideological structure with this aspect nation-state establish and continue own space is education. In the education system definitions and fictions of identifications are learned and learning with this aspect for the nation-state its important place.

All those identification the importance of gender is not new to research it’s done since founding of republic. Mustafa Şahin researches the evolution of the social studies curriculum form republic to present, he has done the total analysis of the objectives and contents of social studies course during the republican period, the developments in the curriculum and the contents changing periodically in terms of the subjects to be selected, in this research used some knowledge from him research and Tuba Kancı’s research for understanding historical development, changing.

Aims and objectives

A major aim of the present research will be to analyze and determine the gender in texts books. How the figures are shown with which identity and how figures are related with which object according to the gender. With this general aim, research the answers of these questions; how women and men are shown mostly with who (a-single, b- with child/children, c-adult/adults, d- child(children) and adult(adults), e-family, f- profession(job)), how the figures of adults are shown with which action. (a- housework/ working about house, b- work related with child(child-related work), c- actions about public and business life, d- without actions, e-  actions for her/himself , woman and man adults are mostly shown in where (a- home or environment of home, b- school or environment of school, c- outer space, d- in the institutions, e- undefined.

 Methodology

This research is the study of descriptive nature of content analysis. In Turkey there are so many researches about gender in texts books but in 2009 the new book is used for five years and these books are regulated. (Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı Talim ve Terbiye Kurulu Başkanlığıın 26.08.2009 tarih ve 132 sayılı kurul kararı ile 2010-2011 öğretim yılından itibaren 5 yıl süreyle Ders Kitabı olarak Kabul edilen) books are used. How women and men are mostly shown with who, how the figures of adults are shown with which action, woman and man adults are mostly shown in where. These categories are used because of understanding the roles and positions according to the gender, sex.

Limitations

For understanding the gender in text books in this study need of the discrimination not only from the gender but also all other discriminations; race, ethnicity, age, religion but because of having not enough time others are excluded from the scope of this study, including only gender.

The second major limitation of the research stems from its lack of historical background and politics relations. The reasons for these limitations are tied to time.

2009 PRIMARY 1.CLASS SOCIAL STUDIES TEXT BOOK  

  In terms of figures in the pictures  
  The total number of women  
  The total number of men  
  The total number of girl child  
  The total number of boy child  

 

  In terms of sharing locations  
Locations Inside home Outside home
Woman    
Man    
Girl child    
Boy child    

 

  In terms of sharing roles  
Woman Teacher  
  Mother  
  Costumer  
  Worker  
  Other  

 

  In terms of sharing roles  
Man Master  
  Teacher  
  Father  
  Doctor/Police  
  Other  

 

Girl children

 

Children  
  Student  
Boy children

 

Children  
  Student  

 

2009 PRIMARY 2.CLASS SOCIAL STUDIES TEXT BOOK  

  In terms of figures in the pictures  
  The total number of women  
  The total number of men  
  The total number of girl child  
  The total number of boy child  

 

  In terms of sharing locations
Locations Inside home Outside home
Woman    
Man    
Girl children    
Boy children    

 

 

  In terms of sharing roles
Man Teacher  
  Master  
  Father  
  Other damla ozkan
Woman Teacher  
  Mother  
  Other  

 

Girl children

 

Children  
  Student  
Boy children

 

Children  
  Student  

 

 Damla Özkan

Takvim

August 2020
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