In our life, there are coomunication tools which encircle our life. There are different characteristics than one another and radio is one of the tool which people use it in their daily life because it is portable and it doesn’t resembla other communication tool like Tv. Yes, we don’t see people who speak, who sing a song but we establish relations thorough voices. We imagine that for example when Dj talks about an issue. Maybe every people don’t listen radio everyday but for example, in car, in public transformation, in shopping center, in our telephone that we have chance to listen and have possibility to encourage with it. In addition to all of them, listeners who connect attachment with Dj and some programs which are regulated by radio stations. My observation is that as  people who connect radio stations or connect some radio programs to talk more than the other communication tools because I think that people feel themselves good because they have chance to share their opinions, their memories, their favorite musics to hook.

I give some informations about history of radio in Turkey. In Turkey, first radio broadcasting began in 1927 after one or two years which radio broadcasting started in the world. How it started to establish is that with building enterprise.These enterprises were called Türkiye İş Bankası and Anadolu Ajansı.  Its working method is same with BBC and today their working style continue in the same way.  ( These informations are taken from this link: ) In 1949, there was two radio transmitters in Turkey. In 1949 November, Istanbul radio station begun to broadcasting. Also, ITÜ which started its broadcasting in 1946. (These informations are taken from this link

In this link which shows that  the first radio broadcasting in Turkey in 6 May 1927 . It was at the same time spoken in French language. (

Now, I give short informations about weeks article. One of them is Community Radio which is written by Peterç M. Lewis. This article is about Montreal Conference and what this article was penetrated that how community radio emerged and which time it holded a place in our life in some countries. Pacifia Foundation was one of the first moment of community radio and community radio which is referred as reaction to the radio of its own country in this article. Also, language of community radio is different from offical one. There are some countries which are examined in terms of community radio. One of them is Kenya.  Homa Bay who managed and take into account develop communication infrastructure according to local people and their needs. On the other hand, in Bologna, Radio Alice which is use of live telephoned reports from listeners. The example of community radio is also feminist radio which hugely relate with women’s lifestyle so according to these article I have chance to see that how community radio was developed all over the world, how it hold a place in people life and continue its works in todays life.

The other article which also penetrates Community Radio at the beginning of the 21 century. It starts with the Community Radio in US. The Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) and National Telecommunication Information Act ( NTIA) which put mechanisms for standardisation of stations. In this article, I see that community radio didn’t emerge coincidentally because there were some events like Baby Boomer, Reagan years and also there are some minority groups effect to shape community radio. What these minorities are African American, Hispanic, and Native Americans. In Western Europe, BBC model is applied and the important thing is that establishment of community radio in 1970s and 1980s. Also, in this article, Community Radio in 1974 and Community Public Radio in 1999 were investigated under some criteria in terms of governance, origination, format, funding, audience and identity. According to these table, undoubtedly, differences are seen and meanings, functions of them change also with effecting of commercial radio.

If I evaluate todays condition behalf of radio, with the improvement of technology, which effects expanding broadcasting network, which means that wherever we live, we stand, we have chance to reach radio which doesn’t only means we listen radio but also radio stations which have agenda and set some programs, ıt has news programmes and call some people like academician, like singer, like psychologist, like actors to talk about every issue to give knowledges to people who listen them. In addition to them, radio stations which address not only big cities but also local people. Yes, some of them establish and reach all parts of the Turkey like PowerTürk, Kral Fm, Trt Fm but on the other side some radio stations which are established in specific borders and don’t address whole Turkish people. For example; Radyo Ege which addresses to people who live in Aegean area;  Radyo Mercan, Radyo Akdeniz which addresses to people who live in Antalya;  Radyo 5, Radyo Bursa which addresses to people who live in Bursa. There are many examples of these radio stations from all parts of Turkey. (I learn some of these radio stations from this link. Their common characteristic is that regulate their program contents according to local people. In addition, we listen radio everywhere but with entering Internet to our life we listen radio thorough online. We have chance to comment through their social media account. For my opinion, radio is special communication tool,  even if we don’t see people who speak or sing a song , we imagine and this characteristic of radio is depart itself from other communication tool and I think that people who establish cosy relationship with speaker, Dj or other person.

In conclusion, radio which was long history in our life, it was so crucial communication tool in the past before television and technology was  enter to our lifes but today maybe its number of target audience decrease according to my observation because people have fast life, they use mobile phones for communication and it substitudes and manipulates our communication style, communication processes and also communication vehicles are effected so many people who don’t prefer listening radio in their daily life and because of this reason radio loses its importance but for my opinion radio provides people to talk more , share their ideas with other people who don’t see, don’t react or don’t answer to them, maybe this characteristic effect peoples preference to not listen radio but for my opinion attachment with radio is so special for followers or listeners of radio than other communication tools.

What UnderGround Press is?


I firstly begin with the meaning of underground press then I give some examples of journals which are associate with underground press, as I talk about them I give way articles of under ground press . If I think about meaning of underground press, it includes freedom of speech, free to write opinions to become independent without seeing limitations and restrictions.Actually, it is war of thinking because it shows alternative to right and digress what traditional media penetrates issues and manipulates people to think in one way especially in traditional media, it isn’t possible to react, or produce counter opinions because they can’t allow people to think in other way. I think that if  I talk about underground press, it is shaped according to some specific opinions, ideologies, counter thoughts like journals of leftist or right, like feminists who defend women rights to men, like environmentalists who call people to take care their environment,to take precautions for global warming, like university students who oppose to political hands, like trade unions who want to establish their rights to powerfuls but the important thing to establish, undoubtedly people who participate in this area is so crucial because many of them work voluntarily because of limited budget and it is so crucial to hold people in one place in terms of good management.

If we look at Turkey, yes there are some examples of them, they try to survive towards many problems such as economic and political or social. What my examples are; Kurtuluş Sosyalist Dergi which was start to publish at 2001 and its main purpose is to create communist working class , defend rights of working class and generally accentuates difference of communist ideas. In its publication, also they hold a place elections, politic crises, Kurdish issue, democratic issue of working class, globalization, capitalism etc so it continue to its existence today(I take these informations from The other example about underground press from Turkey is Pazartesi Journal. Its target audience is that women. This journal was started to publish at 1995 and it provided material support from Frauenansiftung, which is established in Germany. Why I hold a place its journal is that because its contents depend on feminist opinions and try to provide support of feminist movement by women . It includes that women’s lip. Its purpose is that defend womens right to men and aggrieve hegemony of men in a harsly way. ( I have an idea about this journal from ) Undoubtedly, there are many journals but some of them that I give place because they separate from other fashion or cooking journals with its ideologies, and visions.

My last example about underground  press is caricatur journals. In Turkey, especially Leman, and Penguen which are humorous type of journal.Their purpose is to react decision of political hand in terms of economy, education, health, environment etc. These humorous journals are independent. Their  first purpose isn’t to purchase money but they show their reactions and I think that they are voices of people who don’t react situations of Turkey in a freely way, I think that many people who read Leman and Penguen support and encourage themselves to talk about issues, problems in Turkey in their daily life. (,or.r_qf.&biw=1366&bih=667&um=1&ie=UTF8&tbm=isch&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi& : In this link, we see that how our ruling part has which type on ideology on military men so these are examples about underground press.

Now, I shortly give way to some articles from our syllabus.I The first article which is written by Gholam Khiabany and it is called Red Pepper. It is montly magazine but what its difference is that it takes hand leftist opinion and it is advanced by Comedia and it  was placing itself within an influential current of left political thinking in Britain.( It is taken from article) Also, in this article an author who deals with  the other publication which is called The Socialist and which is shaped in terms of Socialist Movement but the most important thing is that author who holds a place that Income and Expenditure of journal and financial problems. As I read all of them, it isn’t easy to manage this type of journal because it should be plan to regulate budget. On the other hand, I see that the importance of advertising in terms of income so what I want to summarize about this article is that yes Red Pepper and The Socialist try to survive for their ideologies and fights with some problems in terms of financial difficulties. On the other hand, the article which is called ‘The Alternative Press’ penetrates alternatives which means variety kinds of magazines which has different contents like hippy magazines. Also, in this article, there are issues which are penetrared in this sector like economic and modes of organization and production and audience. In modes of organization, division of labour, budgeting, planing is so crucial. In audience issue, not only content but also readers, their  educational background, their interest should be thought. In addition to all of them, two magazines are examined which are called New Socialist and New Internationalist and what their differences are that New Socialist which is for Labour Party activists and Labour Movement and on the other hand New Internationalist which is specialist publication and it takes hand development issues so I want to summarize that how these two articles takes into account in terms of alternative press.

In conclusion, I explain firstly meaning of underground press for me and give alternative journals in Turkey and then I shortly summarize two articles. In Turkey, some journals try to survive, perpetuate their ideologies . It is so difficult in Turkey because of political hands but the other issues to continue alternative press is not only budget but also people who are writer gather around in same place is not easy task but I think that the most important characteristic of these alternative journals are to show people that different kinds of issue with different points of view and show varieties for our lifes because it isn’t possible to develop ourselves with traditional media so every people should be this type of journals to have an idea, to learn what is going on about events, people and our lifes but in today condition, it opens to discussion that how many journals take an action independently in terms of their ideologies or opinions through the world ? or how many years that political hands allow them to continue their publications?