- Group of American anthropologists, linguists and psychiatrists developed in the 5O’s an alternative approach to « communication » to the « theory of communication » suggested in the late 40’s by Bell Lab’ scientist Claude Shannon.
- In 1942, Gregory Bateson and Birdwhistell, Hall Goffman, Watzlawich and others focused on the retroactive, circular model which was proposed by Norbert Wiener.They refused linear model of communication.
- According to this model, the receiver is as equally important as the sender.
- They claimed that Wiener‟s model was more suited to studying communication in the social sciences whereas the mathematical model was more applicable to the telecommunications engineers by whom and for whom, it was designed.
- They developde 3 Hypotheses ;
- The elements themselves are less important than relationship between the elements
- All human behaviour has communicative value ; mutual relations and responds support vast system of communication.horizantal context of succession of message and their vertical context enable arrive at a logic of communication.
- Psychiatric disoreders are a sign of disturbed communication between individuals who carry the symptoms and the people around them.