In Mosco’s model of political economy, the control and the survival that related with the maintainence of social order are the main point to explain political economy. He focuses on four main characteristic of critical political economy:
- Social change and history: Political economy continues the tradition of classical theorists, uncovering the dynamics of capitalism,its cyclical nature, the growth of monopoly capital, state apparatus and so on.
- Social totality: The political economy is holistic that explores the relations among commodity, institutions , social relations and hegemony. It explores the determination among these elements.
- Moral Philosophy: The analysis of economic system and also discussion of the policy problems and moral issues that arise from it.
- Praxis: Political economists attempt to transcend teh distinction between researc and plicy, orienting their work toward actual social changes and practice.
the political economy of communications, Janer Wasko
In week 10, we talked about Cultural Products and some trends which producers turn artistic products to cultural products with economic revenues.
Sex and The City itself is a very fundamental example in this topic due to its process of being cultural product. Firstly, it has published Grand Central and written by Candace Bushnell who writes column for New York Observer. It was New York Times bestseller and then HBO decided to create the book’s television comedy drama series. Broadcasted from 1998 until 2004. During its six-year run, various producers, writers and directors worked for the show.
Because of its huge viewers throughout the world, Hollywood decided to make the show’s first movie in 2008 “Sex and The City” and than its sequel “Sex and The City 2” in 2010.
In the end, as we look at the all process, journalistic documents are became book, than television show was appeared and two Hollywood movies are made. So, artistic product became cultural product and most American women, also worlwide women imitated Sex and The City as a holy bible.
Different sociology departments conducted several studies about the show and its effects. Million dollors public relation and advertising campaigns were conducted and economic income was huge from this artistic show as a product.
There is a important video which is prepared by Emory University Sociology Department about Sex and The City. Please click here.
We are living in a such world that we come up any kind of products served for us concerning certain economic foundation. Written by Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice is one of the world classics today. It is now for sure that since first published in 1813, the novel and the plot itself has been transformed into many different versions around the world. What are the effects behind that? It is all good to say that different types of a product are disseminated with the help of the media, but this case rather depends on economic concerns and, according to me opinion, it is generally the case in todays world.
We face Mona Lisas on the cover of notebooks at stationery,on the mugs we drink coffee, and t-shirts we wear. The Pride and Prejudice is another instance for this case showing us that even in art and its subtexts, there is economic concerns involved in. The book itself has been broadcast, used for TV commercial and even filmed, the title of which is changed into the ‘Bride and Prejudice’ for the Bollywood. This is true to say that all these things make our world enriched; but, I reckon that art , at least literature should not be degraded into such a place in the last instance for economic policies by the authorities to open up new industries. Ms. Austen would have appreciated that even 198 years later her work-of-art is still popular; but I am highly sure that she would rather not wanted such a place it is unconventionally in now.
Herbert Irving Schiller is an American media critic, sociologist, author, and scholar. Schiller studies on examination of the role of popular culture in the spread of American dominance. He claimed that U.S. corporate domination of cultural life is deployed to especially developing nations. His theory can be summarized as follows. USA imported goods from corporate of Europe and Middle East territories and prevents them to open new markets. The goal is to have all energy resources in the mentioned places of the world. In return of keeping energy resources on hand. In order to do this USA sells its consumption ideology by using mass media to Europe and Middle East. Mass Media is the key role of the marketing action. Media owners in USA use propaganda technique while doing this. In this manner they hire ‘clever’ people who are called mind directors to attain his main target. Mind director’s role is to produce the ‘news, ideals, beliefs, and to shape them to be able to distribute to masses. They want to keep status quo by manufacturing consent. Manufacturing consent is a kind of manipulation. Manipulation is the compulsion tool to auditing news flow and it fills the people brains with images, dreams, stereotypes which will never be achieved without consuming. The media create myths which support their view. Those myths are described as ‘Individualism & Personnel Choice; Unchanged Human Nature, No Social Conflict, Multiple information that is selectable.’
The effects of mass media regarding above claim, can be seen by looking TIME magazine covers published in USA, Europe and Asia. As you are aware of TIME is an American news magazine. A European edition (Time Europe, formerly known as Time Atlantic) is published from London. Time Europe covers the Middle East, Africa and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition (Time Asia) is based in Hong Kong. Time is the world’s largest weekly news magazine, and has a domestic audience of 20 million and a global audience of 25 million.
Time Magazine cover in USA which shows mind director’s job is an example claiming that ‘people minds shaped’