Punk Music as an Underground Press

The birth of underground press lead in mid 15th century onwards. The role of underground press has been power although people hasn’t had enough power and conditions. The underground media, in that centuries, consisted in Reformation Movements ( 1520 ), American Revolution( 1765-83 ) and French Revolution (1789 ). Each counterculture movement was the organ that constructed resistance network. These become a voice of independence, freedom and liberty.
In 1960s and 1970s, the term “underground media” is used to refer to illegal publications under oppresive regimes, such as, “samizdat” in Soviet Union and “bibula” in Poland. The underground press were the independently published and distributed underground papers associated with the countercultere in United State, United Kingdom and other western nations. Public tend to set up their life in peace and freedom excluded war, oppression and expoiltation. Therefore the role movements were indispensably existed, for instance, civil rights, black power, feminist movement, opposition movement to the war in Vietnam.
People reflect their reaction via pamphlets, fanzines, comics, flyers, posters and so on. The significant movements, in 1970s, is punk subculture which centres of punk rock music , comprises a diverse array of ideologies, fashions and forms of expressions including visual art, dance, literature and film. They had punk music magazines published in photocopied formats. It had been spread rapidly. The subculture is largely characterized by anti-establishment views and the promotion of individual freedom. The punks are against to capitalism ideologies. They tend to assume that people work in order to enjoy life through culture and entertainment. Punks have inherent self-reliance and “do it yourself” attitude. They have a chord to write their own band in hopes that they would play in the young person’s town.
In conclusion, punk dress heavy chains, bracelets, bullet helmets (as an oppositation indicator of anti-military and police ) that the symbol of slavery. They also have different hair style as Mohawk. Along punks have tatoo and piercings as a meaningful of political. Additionally they buy their clothes in second-hand stores to emphasize the opposition of consumption.

Who wants to be volunteer for publish Fanzine? (Week 4)

Fanzine is created by “fanatic” and “magazine” words which does not has an old history in Turkey. Fanzine is the significiant instance in alternative media which is independent from financial resources, and the hierarchical structure. Everyone can produce any fanzine who has a scissors and glue or duplicating possibility. Nevertheless, Turkey does not has large number of fanzine.
Turkey’s fanzine history has started with Mondo Trasho ve Laneth in 1991. Authors who had written about cinema, literature and music in Mondo Trasho. On the other hand Laneth’s authors had written about heavy metal only. The first number is only 35 printed copies of Laneth, has reached sales of 500 in the fourth edition. And the last edition had reached 2,700 copies when the fanzine was closed. But nowadays both of them are not running.
Publishing house does not prefer publish materials without famous authors in Turkey. As a consequence, being fanzine authors are preffered by students or who wants to be an famous author. This situation has three advantages. First one is that publishing fanzine is cheaper and more free than others. The second one is nick name is free to use. And third one is how many will be printed depends on the author’s request. Everyone can write their thoughts in free way. Therefore being fanzine authors are preffered usually by literature authors in Turkey who does not have any opportunity in publishing house. However everyone can write about politics, art, football or something like that.
The most important point for fanzine that who wants to be volunteer? Because, fanzine authors does not earn enough money for their life. They publish it in publishing house or cafes without money. Hence old fanzine authors has a another job for survive their life. As a result, fanzines does not have a long life in Turkey.

Underground Press in Morocco

Underground press is a kind of press where one can represent their views, which are generally not accepted, in opposition to established ideas, rules and systems; such as magazines. “Nichane” – meaning straightforward in the Moroccan dialect – is or let’s say was a weekly moroccan magazine that used jokes to criticize the system, putting emphasis on taboos, political and social scandals, etc. The magazine has been censored in 2010, due to the use of offensive words towards the Moroccan King. However, Nichane had managed to come closer to the Moroccan readers and put all the barriers aside, using daily life language to uncover the reality of the society and be open about it; which the mainstream media fail to do. Despite of the language it used, I myself was a fan of this magazine, because it was the most concrete and realest thing to read and still believe. As I mentioned in a previous comment on alternative media, the latter are now considered as a threat to the mainstream ones and a weapon that kills every opportunity of being surreal, this is why the magazine has been officially censored from the public, but however, left its mark on the internet and on social networks, under www.nichane.com