TURKISH FILMS AND TURKISH TELEVISIONS
I begin my writing with films. Actually, films which carry away us to different world some of them real but some of them are fancy and they are categorized in terms of issues like drama,comedy, war, we don’t only watch, we see that and have an idea about cultures, customs, traditions peoples, cities, which hold a place in the world and we have chance to make sense about these issues. Firstly, I take hand Turkish films which means that how they hold a place within Turkish people life and then I give way to how Turkih televisions enter to our lifes and give some examples about first broadcasatings.
First film screening was shown at Palace during 1896 during II. Abdülhamit by Bertrand. First years of Turkish films were foreign movies. In 1914, ‘Ayastefanos’ taki Rus Abidesinin Yıkılışı’ which was accepted as first Turkish documentary film and which was shooted by Fuat Uzkınay. This film takes place in this link in a shortly ( http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3JwchoxBawY ) Especially, until republican period, films’ content about First World War. In this sector, Muhsin Ertuğrul acceded film company at 1922 and who was crucial person up to 1950. He shooted more than 30 films. Some of his films were called Ateşten Gömlek (1923), its content was about Turkish War of Independence. First sound film was İstanbul Sokakları (1931) and Bir Millet Uyanıyor ( 1932). After 1950s, it was started to shape Turkish cinema language slowly. In 1952, ‘Kanun Namına’ was turning point of Turkish film in terms of its recital method, its player, location which film. In 1960s, film was effected negatively because television entered to our lifes . While cinema penetrated social and economic issues in 1970s, and in 1980s, cinema took hand issues about women and psychological films. After then in 1990s, number of Turkish films were reduce but they were well qualified films. (I summarize these informations and took them from this page : http://www.uzmanportal.com/turkiyede-sinema-film-filim-nin-tarihi-tarihcesi-kisaca-ozeti-gelisimi.html/ ) On the other hand, I want to hold a place that first Turkish film which was broadcasted by TRT in 17 th November of 1968. Its content was suspenser- psychological film. There was a girl who was so jealous, so aggressive and her attitude to other people were so rude. This character was picked by Alev ORALOĞLU. This film takes a place in this link. (First Turkish Film in TRT http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sQWK7W7ct8Y )
Actually, as I evaluate Turkish film according to these informations, there was deficiencies because Turkey which followed developments in this sector from behind of the West. It was shaped by foreign films because it was effected in terms of its technology, its methods, its contents. What I mean is that Turkish cinema didn’t shape itself, it was enriched by other countries but if we look at today, especially with effects of education, with improvement of tehcnology in terms of visuality, technical equipments, Turkish cinema progresses. In addition to this, there are many successful film directors, many players who develop themselves and produces good qualified films and they not only show their films in local area but also embody Turkey in global area, in some contests or some film festivals. I give some known director and their films which represent Turkish cinema in all over the world. Nuri Bilge Ceylan (Uzak,2003 / Gegen Die Wand,2004), Fatih Akın, Ferzan Özpetek, Abdullah Oğuz (Mutluluk,2007)
Secondly, I take hand television and give short information about history of Turkish television. Undoubtedly, everybody have television in their home. It addresses to people in different way because its function change. What I mean is that , in the old days, there were news and people followed news thorough Tv but if we compare role of television from past to today , we will see that it has many functions. For example, while we watch news at one channel, on the other hand, we watch football matches, tv series, talk shows, etc etc. Actually, today we have an idea about what is going on in our country and in the world.
If I look at history of Turkish television, it would started at Istanbul Technical University at 1952 as laboratory work and it was accepted at starting point of television in Turkey. Broadcasting contents were theatre, Western classical music, concer of folk music, health, child, cultural programs but it terminated its broadcastings and attorned its technical equipments to TRT at 1968. At that time, television was seen as education and cultural vehicle by program publishers. I want to take a place a link which shows that first broadcasting of TRT in 31 January of 1968 which was test broadcasting from Ankara. (First Broadcasting of TRT : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RX6rS9t-YuY) but the condition of TRT was changed because with 1990s, there were started to emerge private television and because of this reason TRT fell in step with its rivals and established alternative channels like TRT 2 (culture-art), TRT 3 (spor channel), TRT GAP( addresses to East and Southeast area of Turkey), TRT INT (addresses to Turkish people who live in foreign country) so TRT which was the most important channel in history Turkish television because Turkish people who had chance to watch , took information, had an idea about many things thorough TRT.
On the other hand, first private television started with Star. (This is the advertisment of Star Tv before it broadcasted http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ox9N1XwWYxk ) After then, Show Tv, Kanal 6, Atv, HBB, TGRT, Samanyolu, Kanal D, Kanal 7 and Flash TV which were other Turkish private channels then Star. I give link which showed advertising of Star Tv. There were two speakers who gave information about program formats in terms of contest programmes, football programs etc. They tried to higlight that Star Tv which contributes lots of things to life of Turkish people. ( I took these informations from publication of Ministry of Education about History of Turkish Radio and Television Pages between 36-41 : http://megep.meb.gov.tr/mte_program_modul/modul_pdf/321GM0025.pdf )
So if I evaluate Turkish television behalf of alternativeness, it was so problematic situation because there was only one Turkish channel and which was managed under many rules and Turkish people didn’t have alternative chance to look another. If private televisions came to our life earlier, point of Turkish people would be so wide because regulations also had an crucial role on them and these cause to prevent themselves to broadcast something in a freely way and cause that people didn’t express their lifes, talk about politics, talk about economics in a freely way. Actually, there was so compulsion on Turkish television. Today, the condition was changed because number of television increases day by day, their program formats are developed and enlarged and addresses to every people whoever has different life style one another. In addition to this, In Turkey, at the beginning of Turkish television, we won’t talk about independence but today I think that there was return of repressed because people who have chance to more in debate programs, or talk shows even it is limited but the point which Turkish television comes to today condition is so progressive and not easy.
In conclusion, I talk about Turkish cinema and Turkish televisions. Undoubtedly, at the beginning, Turkey was backward and didn’t have available condition in terms of technical, economic, political condition, and the only thing which it did is that follow other development countries and tried to do same thing with them because of this reason Turkey didn’t do original works and today conditions are changed because in Turkey, there are lots of channels, lots of films which do different works, produce many things, reaches many people in terms of penetrating dissimilar content program formats behalf of TV again imitate to attract Turkish people attention but I think that milestone in history of Turkish television and also effect on film is that emergence of private television. If it didn’t, today we will be closed not only each other but also other countries, people , culture in all over the world because its place in our life is undeniable. We travel with them to many place with channel surf and witnesses many things.