Cultural jamming can be seen in democratic community

In the last decade in Turkey, internet has wide range of cultural jamming. Especially political jamming of subvertising can only be seen in social media like websites, blogs, facebook or twitter. Heberler tv show and Zaytung website are the most important samples for cultural jamming for Turkey.
Heberler can be liken to The Daily Show with Jon Steawart. The program, which based on the cultural and political jamming, was featured on Turkmax which is private channel on Digiturk. An anchorman and a commentator were commenting daily current and political issues. We have to use past tense when we are writing about Heberler because program was banned after Gezi demonstrations. Justification of ban was program’s producer and artist team had important role in Gezi.
For example of Heberler news:
Turkey’s famous pianist Fazıl Say, was sentenced to 10 months for his tweet (Fact). In addition, Minister of Justice said that “We do not have freedom for thoughts and expression. But everyone, who wants to expression their thoughts, can find a new way” (Their commenting).
Zaytung.org has a satiric language like Heberler. When the website was established that founders were inspired by “The Onion News” which has US origin. The website was established in 2010. They had made some groundless news at the beginning but they changed their strategy and started to make cultural and political jamming.
For example Zaytung.org news:
After celebrity of 23 April Children’s Day, Turkey has high morale: We have lots of children who were not killed by someone. (Ascription of Berkin Elvan)
The culture of democracy is important for cultural and especially political jamming. Cultural jamming can be seen in democratic community. But Turkey has changed their strategy and political attitude about democratic culture in recent years. Great numbers of journalist are in the prison in Turkey. The government cannot stand criticism. Therefore, cultural or political jamming do not have place on televisions or printed media and billboards. But on the other hand, political problems are rising political jamming. In process of time, understanding will be changed.

Community radio in Turkey: Government Publications and Private Publications

Radio history has different parts which are government publications and private publications in Turkey. Private publications has gone throught tough process to come to today. Occasionally, the protest has caused state monopoly. People protesting the closure of private radio car radio antennas were wearing black ribbons.
Turkey’s first radio broadcast was made in 1927 with private corporation. That was continued until 1964. Turkey Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) was established in 1964. Radio broadcasting was made by TRT until 1992. Government monopoly system was changed that year. (Kuyucu, M., Türkiye’de Özel Radyo Yayıncılığı: Ulusal Ölçekte Yayın Yapan Özel Radyo Kanallarının Yapıları Üzerine Bir Araştırma, 2013, İstanbul)
In that term, legal basis problems was induced some backlash. Community radio increased in number. Government could not control their publish content. And government had wanted to control number of community radio. When community radio broadcasting banned by government, people reacted by protest until legal basis was made. A radio station made publishing in a boat on the sea of Marmara. (https://eksisozluk.com/ozel-radyo-ve-televizyonlarin-kapatilmasi–1263906 – Access, 15 April 2014) This period resembles UK, US, Germany and France. The Boat That Rocked (2009) is the best movie about this period in UK. After banned Minister of Transport and Communication Yaşar Topçu had said that “We will shut down this radio station. We can not allow anyone tell that what you want. If you want when you want it to behave as we return to Patagonia. We do not allow such things.” (Cumhuriyet Newspaper, 24 September 1992)
1058 community radios are broadcasting in Turkey according to Radio and Television Supreme Council data in 2013. Music, news and kind of community programs are followed by approximative 2 million audience. Community radios are broadcasting 7 days 24 hours in 7 geographic area. Marmara area has maximum number of community radio. (Kuyucu, M., Türkiye’de Özel Radyo Yayıncılığı: Ulusal Ölçekte Yayın Yapan Özel Radyo Kanallarının Yapıları Üzerine Bir Araştırma, 2013, İstanbul)

Local community radio stations allows to communication for different local languages and minority groups. Despite different local languages and minority groups in Eastern in Turkey, less number of local community radio stations are broadcasting at there.

Who wants to be volunteer for publish Fanzine? (Week 4)

Fanzine is created by “fanatic” and “magazine” words which does not has an old history in Turkey. Fanzine is the significiant instance in alternative media which is independent from financial resources, and the hierarchical structure. Everyone can produce any fanzine who has a scissors and glue or duplicating possibility. Nevertheless, Turkey does not has large number of fanzine.
Turkey’s fanzine history has started with Mondo Trasho ve Laneth in 1991. Authors who had written about cinema, literature and music in Mondo Trasho. On the other hand Laneth’s authors had written about heavy metal only. The first number is only 35 printed copies of Laneth, has reached sales of 500 in the fourth edition. And the last edition had reached 2,700 copies when the fanzine was closed. But nowadays both of them are not running.
Publishing house does not prefer publish materials without famous authors in Turkey. As a consequence, being fanzine authors are preffered by students or who wants to be an famous author. This situation has three advantages. First one is that publishing fanzine is cheaper and more free than others. The second one is nick name is free to use. And third one is how many will be printed depends on the author’s request. Everyone can write their thoughts in free way. Therefore being fanzine authors are preffered usually by literature authors in Turkey who does not have any opportunity in publishing house. However everyone can write about politics, art, football or something like that.
The most important point for fanzine that who wants to be volunteer? Because, fanzine authors does not earn enough money for their life. They publish it in publishing house or cafes without money. Hence old fanzine authors has a another job for survive their life. As a result, fanzines does not have a long life in Turkey.