WHAT UNDERGROUND PRESS IS? HOW IT HOLD A PLACE IN OUR LIFES?
I firstly begin with the meaning of underground press then I give some examples of journals which are associate with underground press, as I talk about them I give way articles of under ground press . If I think about meaning of underground press, it includes freedom of speech, free to write opinions to become independent without seeing limitations and restrictions.Actually, it is war of thinking because it shows alternative to right and digress what traditional media penetrates issues and manipulates people to think in one way especially in traditional media, it isn’t possible to react, or produce counter opinions because they can’t allow people to think in other way. I think that if I talk about underground press, it is shaped according to some specific opinions, ideologies, counter thoughts like journals of leftist or right, like feminists who defend women rights to men, like environmentalists who call people to take care their environment,to take precautions for global warming, like university students who oppose to political hands, like trade unions who want to establish their rights to powerfuls but the important thing to establish, undoubtedly people who participate in this area is so crucial because many of them work voluntarily because of limited budget and it is so crucial to hold people in one place in terms of good management.
If we look at Turkey, yes there are some examples of them, they try to survive towards many problems such as economic and political or social. What my examples are; Kurtuluş Sosyalist Dergi which was start to publish at 2001 and its main purpose is to create communist working class , defend rights of working class and generally accentuates difference of communist ideas. In its publication, also they hold a place elections, politic crises, Kurdish issue, democratic issue of working class, globalization, capitalism etc so it continue to its existence today(I take these informations from http://kurtulussosyalistdergi.awardspace.com/index.htm) The other example about underground press from Turkey is Pazartesi Journal. Its target audience is that women. This journal was started to publish at 1995 and it provided material support from Frauenansiftung, which is established in Germany. Why I hold a place its journal is that because its contents depend on feminist opinions and try to provide support of feminist movement by women . It includes that women’s lip. Its purpose is that defend womens right to men and aggrieve hegemony of men in a harsly way. ( I have an idea about this journal from http://www.pazartesidergisi.com/index.html ) Undoubtedly, there are many journals but some of them that I give place because they separate from other fashion or cooking journals with its ideologies, and visions.
My last example about underground press is caricatur journals. In Turkey, especially Leman, and Penguen which are humorous type of journal.Their purpose is to react decision of political hand in terms of economy, education, health, environment etc. These humorous journals are independent. Their first purpose isn’t to purchase money but they show their reactions and I think that they are voices of people who don’t react situations of Turkey in a freely way, I think that many people who read Leman and Penguen support and encourage themselves to talk about issues, problems in Turkey in their daily life. (http://www.google.com.tr/search?hl=tr&safe=active&q=leman%20dergisi%20tepki&psj=1&bav=on.2,or.r_qf.&biw=1366&bih=667&um=1&ie=UTF8&tbm=isch&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi&ei=5_9FUdW-A7TE4gTw8YGwAQ#imgrc=l4vWyUii6EXgpM%3A%3B-0t-IjcF-lBJPM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Ffotogaleri.haber7.com%252Finner%252F%252F749320110802111649218.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.haber7.com%252Fdergiler%252Fhaber%252F769834-leman-korkusunu-kapak-yapti%3B493%3B574) : In this link, we see that how our ruling part has which type on ideology on military men so these are examples about underground press.
Now, I shortly give way to some articles from our syllabus.I The first article which is written by Gholam Khiabany and it is called Red Pepper. It is montly magazine but what its difference is that it takes hand leftist opinion and it is advanced by Comedia and it was placing itself within an influential current of left political thinking in Britain.( It is taken from article) Also, in this article an author who deals with the other publication which is called The Socialist and which is shaped in terms of Socialist Movement but the most important thing is that author who holds a place that Income and Expenditure of journal and financial problems. As I read all of them, it isn’t easy to manage this type of journal because it should be plan to regulate budget. On the other hand, I see that the importance of advertising in terms of income so what I want to summarize about this article is that yes Red Pepper and The Socialist try to survive for their ideologies and fights with some problems in terms of financial difficulties. On the other hand, the article which is called ‘The Alternative Press’ penetrates alternatives which means variety kinds of magazines which has different contents like hippy magazines. Also, in this article, there are issues which are penetrared in this sector like economic and modes of organization and production and audience. In modes of organization, division of labour, budgeting, planing is so crucial. In audience issue, not only content but also readers, their educational background, their interest should be thought. In addition to all of them, two magazines are examined which are called New Socialist and New Internationalist and what their differences are that New Socialist which is for Labour Party activists and Labour Movement and on the other hand New Internationalist which is specialist publication and it takes hand development issues so I want to summarize that how these two articles takes into account in terms of alternative press.
In conclusion, I explain firstly meaning of underground press for me and give alternative journals in Turkey and then I shortly summarize two articles. In Turkey, some journals try to survive, perpetuate their ideologies . It is so difficult in Turkey because of political hands but the other issues to continue alternative press is not only budget but also people who are writer gather around in same place is not easy task but I think that the most important characteristic of these alternative journals are to show people that different kinds of issue with different points of view and show varieties for our lifes because it isn’t possible to develop ourselves with traditional media so every people should be this type of journals to have an idea, to learn what is going on about events, people and our lifes but in today condition, it opens to discussion that how many journals take an action independently in terms of their ideologies or opinions through the world ? or how many years that political hands allow them to continue their publications?