-MEDIA ACTIVISM and SOCIAL MOVEMENTS-
Before I start to talk about media activism, I want to unfold what activism means and what social movements are and then I talk about this issue behalf of alternative media.
Activism is quite simply taking action to effect social change; this occur in a myriad of ways and in a variety of forms. Often it is concerned with ‘how to change the world’ through social, political, economic or environmental change. This can be led by individuals but is often done collectively through social movements. (http://www.permanentculturenow.com/what-is-activism/)
Social movements are purposeful, organized groups striving to work toward a common social goal and social movements happens not only in one country but also actualizes from country to country, region to region, culture to culture, social issues in terms of political, economic, educational and they are categorized with local, state, national and global. In addition to this, social movements are examined under four types which are called ‘Reform Movements’ . Aim of this movement changes social structure. ‘Revolutionary Movement’ which wants to change every aspect of society. The 1960s counter movements are exampled by link which I examine because 1960s movement is anarchist movement. ‘Religious/Redemptive Movement’which aims is to provoke spiritual growth in individuals. The last one is ‘Alternative Movement’ which focuses self-improvement and change individuals behaviour. (I summarize these informations from this link: http://cnx.org/content/m42945/latest/?collection=col11407/latest )
These are firstly I underline activism and social movements so activism and social movements doesn’t appear now it comes from past because people who encountered problems, and wanted to propagate in order to defend their own right, in order to promulgate their voices through protest for organizing collectively. If I give example from history, ‘Anti-consumerism’, ‘Arab-spring’, ‘Ecology movement’, ‘Human right movement’, ‘Women’s Liberation Movement’ were some examples of how activist people took an action for creating social movements .( I take some names of social movements from (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_movements)
Now, I want to take hand that how alternative media makes a contribution behalf of social movements and activist people. Especially, in social media, which are modern version of terms of Habermas (public sphere). My first example is avatar activism. In this activisim is conducted for serving guy rights in USA in 2009. What social media users is that they change their avatars at the same time for showing logo of guy rights. Its effectiveness were argued because it didn’t measured but this shows that how people take an action for guys and make contribution for enlarging their rights to take attention of other people to their rights. (I drew upon this informations from http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/us-news-blog/2013/mar/27/social-media-gay-rights-avatar-activism)
On the other hand, in this link, writer who talks about higher percentage of using social media since 2008. Yes, the writer talks about how American people especially adults who has posted links about political issues and he gives statistical information about portion which started with %33 and then increases %69 online population and the crucial point which writer want to take attention of readers is ,that social media users in USA who participate political meeting around Interned and talk about problesm, higher education and their economic condition is so good than non user of social media to talk about political matters. (I benefited from this link before I summarize information (http://www.nextgov.com/technology-news/2013/04/social-media-activists-are-wealthier-more-educated-and-rise/62789/)
Lastly, I give crucial information from article about ‘Social Media Activism from Malaysia and Pakistan’ behalf of social media activism particularly taking hand of Twitter. In this esay, what writer want to examine is to see behaviour of social media activists and sharing issue of media activist from different regions of the world. Writer who take hand 70 Malaysian twitter and 118 Pakistani twitter. What writer did is that looking for content of twitter, retweeter of tweeters.In addition to this, writer aim is to show how people share and talk about political issues and their interests and at the end of the statisques they see that how Malaysian and Pakistani people share same issue through Twitter . As I read this paper, I want to combine theoretical terms of Marshall McLuhan which time space compression. What I mean is wherever people live, they have chance to share and have an idea about what other people thing about different issues in terms of dissimilar topics without boundries. (Link : http://www2012.wwwconference.org/proceedings/nocompanion/wwwwebsci2012_qureshi.pdf)
In conclusion, social movements, activist people which hold a place world which we live because people organized for resisting something for rights, for laws, for political issues, for socio- economic application, justice and education . All these issues happens in our inner life but every day many things happen and people try to adapt something or against them. Particularly, with the media people start to awake and want to have an idea about every issue. They search , they take place in the Internet what other people think, how they make a contributions about dissimilar issues. Before movements actualize, they organize, establish contact with them in an easily way because they build networks to take an action collectively and create democratic environment according to their benefits so this is positive and general perpective todays life behalf of media activism, alternative media activism but the question comes to my mind are they effective, are they draw a conclusion as they want to because in behalf of alternative media activism, issues are temporary because people make an effort in a short time, they express their points of view in a freely way , they support movements which available their lifestyles, their ideologies,their political views and they react but I think that many of them don’t mirror their reactions physically in spaces or how many of them take responsibility in a seriously way and because of this reason there is an artifical environment and the effectiveness of movements open discussion.
6- M.Atif Qureshi, Arjumand Younus, Lay Ki Soon, Muhammad Saeed, Nasir Touheed, Colm O’Riordan and Pasi Gabrielle