I firstly take hand ‘Four Approaches To Alternative Media’. In this chapter, alternative media which are divided into four categories which are called ‘Alternative media, Community media, Civil society media, and Rhizomatic media.’ These four approaches of alternative media which is grasped under two categories. These are media centered and society centered. First approach is the community media . Tönnies (1969) underlines that community is defined by the presence of close and concrete human ties and by collective relations but there are some questions to our mind and about geograpy and ethnicity of communities. Actually, it isn’t necessary to ive in same geograpy and have same ethnicites. because Popple (1995:4) thinks that people sharing a common condition or problem can also be seen as a community of interest.(These are taken from chapter.) Actually, I think that one of the most important reconceptualization about community is Anderson’s Imagined Community because people who don’t see or don’t talk or don’t communicate with each other because media reach them and facilitates their communication processes and they interact with this and their distance isn’t crucial. For example; I live in İzmir and everyday I read newspaper Yeniasır which is local newspaper in an Aegean Era and I read people who live Manisa and there is important societal problems happen even if I don’t see and I don’t talk them, I have an idea people, people live condition, their problems and so media which faciliates that reach news without limitations, space, time, distance. In addition to this, one of the important issue about community media is geograpy and ethnicity . On the other hand, access and participation is penetrated in this chapter. Participation is easy for every people to participate , represent themselves and I think that the most crucial thing is that people shouldn’t become professional writer to promulgate their voice, to write their opinions without any limitations. Participation, following Pateman (1970:71) can thus be seen as a process in which the individual members have a certain degree of power to influence or determine the outcome of that process and full participation is seen as a process where each individual member of a decision making body has equal power to determine the outcome of decisions so these show that what community media is about. Actually, communities are hold a place in our lifes because people gather around some place in terms of their opinions, their political perspectives, their identities, their jobs of course there are many reasons.For example; political parties in Turkey like CHP, AKP, DSP etc, for example associations like Kardelenler, Toplum Gönüllüleri , Haytap etc. They live all time, they aren’t occur with media but the most crucial thing and different characteristic is that alternative media facilitate and provide active actions between people , establish huge networks between them and gather around through alternative media without meeting same place, without face to face communication with each other.
The other approach is that Alternative media as an alternative to a mainstream media which is introduced in this chapter as distinction between mainstream and alternative media. In this approach, alternative media associates with ideology, domination and Gramscian notion of hegemony and mainstream media which is ideological and it is conducted by the state, politicians, and private sector. As I look these two types of media, there are binary oppositons between them. One of them is free but other is controllable, on the one hand there is an hegemony which relates with hierarchical relations but on the one hand there is non hierarchic relations so there is two different picture as I think. Undoubtedly, many people who defend alternative media because it includes democratic environment, every people have right to talk with each other but I think that it isn’t possible to say that alternative media is dominant than mainstream media especially in Turkey. Yes it is totally relate with political and economy but ruling party which captures Turkish media, sell channels and manipulates their ideologies, their ideas to masses without taking their consent or overrating what public think. For example, SamanYolu, Kanal 7, TRT some best known examples of what ruler party do in Turkey. Even if they don’t have other private channels, they set their agendas and effect their news content about which one is available their interest or not and formulate discourses according to their ideologies in these channels so I think that alternative media is big area which includes networks between people who lives differents parts of the society, or country and they aren’t prevented and they are so free to express their opinions in alternative media if it isn’t adequate power toward mainstream media but I think that war between alternative media and mainstream media won’t finish in terms of politic, economic issues.
Mainstream vs. Alternative Media http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2g0FFlbjj2o: in this link a man who start to talk about Prof. James. Terry,who is Professor of Media, and he takes hand lack of crackle journalism , role of journalists, mainstream media to conspiracy theories. He says that sixty three of American people believe a conspiracy and he continue with characteristic of traditional media which is unquestionable, untouch, and not personal and not care about people according to him. He shows that International Heralb Newspaper which is an International version of New York Times. He shows some stories and articles. Stories that he show associates with Obama, his plans, his administration, his expectations and his unsuccessfulness about elaboration for the first time. What he says about this issue is there isn’t any discussion about crime, justice, constitution between people , professors, speakers. The most crucial thing which he underlines that an article which is about Marxism. He say again there isn’t discussion between American people who are in a street. The only thing is that promote Marxism. What I learn or observe something from this video is that yes there is an alternative media which surrounds our lifes with more access but on the other hand, there is real thing which we can’t prevent powerful people who are in mainstream media because they set their agendas and manipulate people opinion about what they should be think and without any rebellion to them.
The other approach which hold a place in this chapter is Civil Society Media. It is explained very ideas of citizenship and examined under two conceptions. One of them generalist conception of Hegel and Marx and other is minimalist conception of Gramsci and Habermas. The best thing to describe civil society is that it is third voice and its place between state media and private commercial media. Girard’s who gives example community radio and he says that community radio listeners are producers, managers, directors an deven owners of the stations. So one question to come my mind. If I look this example, Is it possible to say that community media relate with civil society media? Are they depend to each other? Undoubtedly, there are differences but which characteristic of them discriminate with another so I give example about civil society media. I think that BIANET (Independent Communication Network) is available example for this type of media. What it means that it is a project is one of the hubs formed in Turkey in the last decade within the framework of the struggle for freedom of expression and communication. It coming into existence is simultaneous with the huge collapse of the Turkish mainstream media in the 1990s. With 2000, it started to Internet publishing. Why I write this network because people who are Turk or not, or live in Turkey or another country they have chance to write about political, economic , social issues. (These informations are taken from article of Ertuğrul Kürkçü about BIANET) his network neither depend to private hands nor to the state. Their audiences, visitors are publishers and they are independent. They aren’t any restriction on them to write something so this is my example about this type of media. Unfortunately, today it isn’t possible to talk about variety types of and example of Civil Society Media because there are some economic reason behind them but I think in todays capitalist life it isn’t easy to gather people around one space or find volunteer people to write their opinions without paying money and encourage them to write their reactions in todays life condition.
The last approach of the alternative media is Rhizome Media in this chapter. Deleuze and Guattari (1987) enumerate a series of characteristics of the rhizome – the principles of connection and heterogenity, multiplicity asignifying rupture, cartograpy, and decalcomania. Connection and heterogenity imply that any point of the network can be connected to any other point. I think that if we talk about about rhizomic media , it occur with technology. Why I think that if I take hand televisions, for example as I watch Tv, I see people who live distance part of the world, have an idea about what is going thorough the world and have chance to connect, I think that it is firstly realize by TV but after then Internet which networks establish and people who connect with them, they have chance to see each other like Skype. We have communicate and talk with e mail, send photos, send something and reach which people that person live distance part or not so also if I take hand social media, I have chance to contanct with friend who lives Chinese so for my opinion before technology networks didn’t establish between people, country, companies, associations or other thing. Maybe there is limited opportunity, there need to be much time but with technology there is time space compression especially under the rhizomic media and because of all of these one question come to my mind Is Rhizomic media is examined under Network Society?
In conclusion, I talk about the kinds of alternative media which is penetrared in chapter. Undoubtedly, there are different versions of alternative media which have different characteristic one another but mutual characteristic of them is unfolding new world for people because in this world not only people don’t hold a place in this media but also their communication process is more active. As they communicate with each other, they have right to represent themselves in terms of their opinions, beliefs ,lifes, ideologies etc. In addition to this, they react about any issue in a rapidly way like political, economic, social issues about their countries. I think that the big and most important difference of alternative media is that includes mass participation and there isn’t any elimination between people . I think that this is modern public sphere of Habermas terms. Also, it enlarges, strenght day by day, I think that it will become second world of people and I believe that it ceases to mainstream media and another forces may be in ten years.