Alternative media

Alternative Media
What is alternative media? When we talk non-profit and free of the financial source we can talk about alternative media. If we look at the mainstream media we faced with financial sector and undepended media. They are not free of the speak and they are not be realistic. Because they are belonging financial source. When look at the alternative media, we can see different voice. What are differences? Mainstream interest are financial support . And their survive. But alternative media interest with society and the false of the system.
With new technological development open easy access to the alternative media. We can take news easil and very limited time. Internet technology bring us easy way. We can say in there Global village which is the theory of Marshall Macluhan. The world get small and everyone can easy acces to information in their home. Yes, in that time we live this situation and alternative media example of the this situation.

Technology Fosters Citizen Journalism

As mainstream media get more and more controlled by states, governments or owners of them, the need for alternative media channels rises up. Some media owners can manipulate information just to preserve their economical interests or relationships with political parties. Luckily, people have some courageous individuals who aim to disseminate events and news in an objective way.

Citizen journalism is getting more common in time. To define shortly what  citizen journalism is, Rogers indicates that, “put very simply, citizen journalism is when private individuals do essentially what professional reporters do – report information.” In this aspect, we cannot neglect the importance of technology. The reason for this, since citizen journalists does not perform this information reporting job in a proffesional way, they need some tools to disseminate their findings. At this point, they are able to use some video, photo or text-based sharing websites to let others know what is happening. Also. integration of cameras with phones permit these amateur journalists to perform journalism. Thus, they do not need to have a TV channel, newspaper or expensive camera stuff.

With the emergence of smartphones, there are many applications became available for anyone who uses that gadgets. One of these applications, called Guardian Witness, which was released recently, made possible to share almost any information with other users.

Link for Guardian Witness:

However, people can use Instagram, Twitter or Facebook accounts to share information with their followers. If we consider that today almost everyone is connected to the internet consistently, loading and uploading information is easier than ever.

Here is a video about citizen journalism;






Murder King – Cultural Jamming

When we walk down the street, when we drive a car, or take a bus trip, we may be thinking that that is all there it is – us, the other people and the town (streets, road, building etc). However, there is always much more that comprises our reality, and those are the symbols, the signs which prey on us from all directions. We think we may understand them or take them as a basic messages:” Oh another McDonald’s add,” or an advertisement of a beautiful girl posing for a famous clothing or shoe brand or a picture of a well-known smiling politician surrounded with slogans that are packed with positive sayings.

That’s why the term ‘cultural jamming” came up front, meaning; “a new way of conceiving the world’ and ‘ modifiying ..popular thought and mummified popular culture.’ (Gramsci, 1971 :417). Cultural jamming carries the influence of its predecessor art movements, such as Situationists and detourement.

The most well-known type of culture jamming is subvertising. Subvertisements are creative ads targeted at various suspicious ads which advertise one thing but the truth behind the thing advertising may be different or capitalistic societies and globally well-known slogans of gigantic corporations. These slogans are ironically or satirically modified. The aim here is to get specific messages to the consumers (us) to think twice or at least get us thinking about the things we buy and consume. Also to rethink the slogans and our opinion and awareness of major global corporations that are advertising themselves just about everywhere they can.

We separate three types of cultural jamming, political, social signs and signs of our time (Internet as an alternative medium of distribution for jams). Political jams are directed against government policies or formal political actors, such as political parties; against undesirable behavior in society; or even at times against minorities in society (Bailey, O., Understanding alternative media; 140).

Political Jam: The example below borrowed from the, with the title The economists must learn to substract, shows such a anti-government and anti – economical advert. In this clip the advertisers shows the cruel opposites between the economy and the growing GDP and its effect in real life:” Every time the tree is cut the GDP goes up, every time the oil spill happens the GDP goes up, every time the cancer patient is diagnose, GDP goes up – is that how we measure our economical progress?”


Social / Cultural Jams: jams target the society, adverts, videos, films, street art etc. to show the satire, irony to get us to rethink the symbols we are used to seeing each day, so our reality of the world. Examples below target various global multi-national corporation companies’ slogans and our unstoppable desire for shopping and our obsession with it.

Finally we can talk about the The Internet as an alternative medium of distribution for jams: in a modern times Internet became indispensable for an average consumer in a developed countries, therefore Internet is important for distribution of jams and it spreads them like a virus from one community to the other.

Examples of subvertising are shown below:

In this ad a world famous golfs tiger Woods has his smile shaped into a Nike tick symbol. Suggesting maybe that big globalization firms are using famous sports people who sell themselves for the propaganda and waste money earnings.  

Very popular Burger King becomes a Murder King, questioning the substance and the quality of food  or maybe questioning the ingredients they are selling to their customers and the effect of these on their health. Can be even the cause of deadly illnesses such as cancer.

Four global multi corporation companies are satirically portrayed as an ideas driven by the capitalism.

Globaly famous Coca Cola ad, is suggesting to enjoy the capitalism that goes with it. In a sense spreading a drink is spreading a certain monopole system, ideology, economic and political view of a limited few.

Satirical advert is presenting so called “shopping human evolution”, where the straight standing consumer throw himself into a shopping spring, and ending up bend, physically smaller because of the burden of the all packages from the shopping he did. It’s the reverse biological evolution of the human species proposed by Charles Darwin in 19 c. Maybe it’s trying to show how in a way we are regression as oppose to progressing in human evolution.    


Comments below the subvertizing ads are my own interpretations of the way I see and understand these rather unique ads. Naturally, different interpretations are possible as well, I believe the aim here is to get an individual thinking and starts seeing an average images we are used to seeing on a daily basis as extraordinary, and questions it’s use.

What do you think about it? How would you interpret the ads, is there anything else you think that needs to be said here? All of you are welcome to participate…



Bailey, O. G., Cammaerts, B. and Carpentier, N. (2008) Understanding Alternative Media.

Berkshire: Open University Press – chapter 10






Artistic Way of Communication: Advertisement

Some argue that advertising is a type of art. On the other hand, there are many people state that, advertising should be considered as a scientific way of persuasion. However, in my opinion, advertising is a combination of both artistic and scientific components which are combined to persuade people or give information. Furthermore, I see advertisements as a type of alternative media. The reason for this, people can be informed about events by advertisements. Especially those events, which cannot find place for themselves in mainstream channels, for being contradictory to interests of media owners or stakeholders of different companies. In other words, in advertisments there are not only images that aim to persuade people to consume a particular product.

Images can be used to persuade you to stop obeying the status quo, to change your mind for a specific attitude or just make you act for a change. It is easy to draw attention and impress people for advertisements since they are artistic and shocking. Therefore, advertisement is a very effective way of communication to change an attitude, inform people or give information. Below there are some examples for my statements.


Radio Favela – indispensable community radio

An interesting story coming from a small poor town named Aglomerado da Serra in Belo Horizonte in Brazil where a group of young black men in the beginning of 1980’s with the help of money given by one of boy’s mother to establish rather primitive radio station with a poor infrastructure. They named it FAVELA, which actually is a name for a slum, poor places filled with violence, drug dealing, murders etc. their aim was to connect people from the slum, to fight against violence and to stop drug dealing.

Furthermore, radio station turned out to become indispensable tool for the community that fought against poverty, severe electrical cuts, no running water and more. Favela radio station became a medium helping to locate missing children, calling ambulances for the injured and ill, locating the families, giving information for important issues. Even hospitals were sending the information about the victims of the accidents and attacks because they were not able to reach the family members other way.

Naturally, Radio Favela as a pirate radio station underwent many repression and attacks from the government police. One of Radio Favela’s founder Misael Avellino des Santos was arrested seven times, beaten and torture by a police. The police twice completely destroyed the radio station and even tried to connect the founders of the radio to a drug dealings and murders. After each collision, Radio Favela came back, mostly with the money collected from the local community, and the fight for radio’s existence continued for the next 23 years.

But why was the local government so intimidated by a rudimental radio station in one of many Brazilian favelas hiding up in the mountains? What was so powerful about the Favela Radio station that many saw it as a threat?

Radio Favela I think it’s a wonderful example of a community radio, young black boys started up a radio station that filled in so very necessary connection and help to the poor society they came from. That is exactly where the Brazilian government failed. Radio Favela was established with a rather modest financial input, yet because of its location up in the mountains it was accessible to variety of societies in a nearby cities, it soon became very popular among poor and also middle class. Favela was completely autonomous,   if anything government police was for years strongly opposing the Radio station and its founders. Furthermore, Radio Favela’s one and only main goal was to serve the community, being a voice, a medium of this community and therefore had no profit in goal intentionsListeners were not only supporters they were in a way Radio Favela, if they needed an ambulance they called the radio, if they wanted to talk to their friends and family, they called the radio, Radio Favela accepted over 500 calls all without censorship, calling to the Radio Favela meant connecting directly to the entire community.  Local music, local artists and community issues had always  the on air privilege before the national or international news. Radio Favela went even further, they hosted educational programs informing people about the cancer, their civil rights, women were informed about their rights against domestic violence, health, voting etc. in sum, Radio Favela gave their community more than the government education, police and media ever did. Because of all that, Radio Favela is a golden example of a community radio that no matter how many times it was shut down, destroyed, people suffering…it always came back, because it was so greatly needed by the favela’s community, people’s identity and their sense of belonging and gratefulness that someone did care about them and their existence.

Constant struggle, all the good the Radio Favela’s establishers  didn’t go unrecognized. After 20 years of day to day struggle Radio Favela got national and international attention. In February 1999 it was a cover story on Wall Street Journal, in 1998 it was the only Brazilian radio invited to the prestige Congress of Community Radios in Milan (Italy),  finally in 2001 it got a government permission, and the movie was shot in 2003 with the title Uma onda no ar ( A wave in the air).

Radio continues to exist today, it is more popular than ever, having nearly 4 million listeners, it has proved to itself and to the world that representing the community with no matter how modest means you may have as long as it is accessible to others, as long as context serves the listeners and as long as it connects and gives life to the community around it, a great changes can be made, the good will not go unrecognized.



Old Fashion, New Trend: Radio

As a mass communication tool, radio has a great importance for informing people in an accurate way. In comparison with newspaper, most people think that radio is much more credible. The reason for this, with radio, people can listen speeches by hearing speaker’s own voice; this characteristic of radio makes it more credible medium than newspaper. In addition, with radio, news and events could be broadcasted more quickly. Given the fact that a radio channel can sustain it streaming constantly, people can hear about flash news as they happen. These aspects of radio makes it valuable and indispensable medium in the eyes of both audiences’ and publishers’.

Most of the people may think that the internet and the television pushes radio out of audiences’ area of interest. In some ways it is true, because with the developing technology, people can access to the internet no matter where they are. Connecting to the internet became so easy that, when people wish to hear about the latest events, the first place which they look is the internet. However, many people still go on to listen to radio while they drive, cook or work. According to some researches, which were conducted in Turkey, people see radio “as a friend” and 71% of the participants said they listen to radio regularly. In my opinion, the reason that makes radio so popular among audience, is that they can get along with their work while they are listening to radio. According to me this is the most remarkable characteristic of radio; anyone could not be able to  cook, drive or work while s/he is watching television or reading newspaper but, they can do all of these activities while they are listening to radio. That’s to say, radio is still one of the most preferred media among people. Houses without television or the internet connection can keep up with the latest events with radio, instantly. So far, I can summarize radio as a cheap, instant, credible and widespread medium.

Developing technology give people chance to establish their own local radio stations. Hence, people who does not have sufficient funds to establish a television channel can establish a radio station. No doubt that establishing and sustaining a radio station is cheaper than a television channel. For example, in Turkey there are 1087 radio channels and 258 TV channels. However, thanks to the party in power, many radio stations and TV channels are experiencing some problems; their streams are being paused or their channels are being closed. In this sense, the internet comes forward leaving radio behind; because it is hard to monitor and follow the sources of digital publications in contrast with radio or television. Shortly, the internet gives more independence in a strict political environment compared to other types of media.

In conclusion, although the radio can be considered as “old” compared to the newly delevoped technologies, many people still go on to listen to it. With the emergence of television, radio became a little bit disfavored; however, it is one of the indispensable media even in today.




Alternative media, alternative way



Harry Fear, he and his work are example of my case study. Who is he, and what his work is?

Palestina, Izrael, conflict are still here, still there, sixty five years. Maybe it’s time to put that in history books, not in front page of some newspaper.

To be neutral, or to be part of truth is to be alternative or to make alternative.

Today,  ‘everybody’  know about big loby of Israel on each corner in the world, and  big influence of Israel on global mainstream media. But in this situation, we have also some kind of influence on media from Arab countries. Also we can say that we have some ‘neutral’ mainstream media who presenting ‘neutral’ information for ‘all’. In any case, in my view, only way for truth is alternative media, or Harry Fear in this situation. But when I said ‘truth’, that doesn’t mean that I believe in a hundred percent of truth from any kind of media today. Because, one percent is there to always ask for more alternative, and for more truth. But, ninety nine percent is enough for brain preparing to accept that information.

Let’s talk about ‘ninety nine percent of truth’, let’s talk about Harry Fear. Harry Fear is independent journalist,  some people calling him ‘conflict reporter’.  One of the big reason why he decide to be alternative, to be volunteers journalist, is because mainstream media doesn’t give us truth about what’s happening in Gaza. He saw that nobody else doesn’t presenting, giving information trought non stream media in serious way about situation in Gaza.  Some western media do not show pictures of children who die every day, do not give the exact number of fatalities, they are not willing or that is not part of their agenda to be at the right place at the right time. And this is not the case only with the situation in Gaza, it is so in most cases.

Harry Fear don’t have powerful mainstream tv channel, but he has a powerful non mainstream tv channel    or youtube channel. Other his powerful alternative media weapons are his facebook profile with twenty-six thousand subscribers , his facebook page, and website Because ‘the right place at the right time’ a lot of mainstream media are used his source to get some information.  When we look at all of his live streams, movies, statements, we might think he is too biased. We might think he’s on the side of the Palestinians. But maybe that’s because we are all in some way on the side of  the mainstream media, or on the west side, or the side of the half truths, or often on the side of untruth. And the normal is that when we get out of the dark of manipulation of the mainstream media, the truth becomes too bright, it can even make us blind, but this is actually ability to see, because we were blind before, but now we get the truth, the vision.

World need more ‘conflict reporters’, more journalist volunteers, the truth, world need non stream or alternative media. More alternative media, more truth, and less lies and manipulation of mainstream media. Lots of lies often contributes and support  many deaths of innocent civilians, especially in conflicts such as in Gaza. So we all have a duty to fight with lies, to fight for the truth, to fight for humanity. My opinion is that one way of fighting for humanity are trough alternative media.

Alternative Media – Grassroots (case study)

Previous week Izmir Economy University department of Media and Communication organized a seminar (SMNP), where various guests both from Turkey and abroad with Mr. John Downing as an honored guest and main speaker, had a chance to introduce their work media related.

Many of the topics were relevant to the alternative media, and as MA students of media and communication we had a great chance to participate in the seminar. Personally I was impressed by many speakers and their work, such as Resistanbul, a group of activists who try to expose and fight against injustices happening to local as well as immigrant people in Istanbul.  Mister Erdinc Erdenc, an ex-mainstream media journalist who has abandoned the mainstream media and is now highly active journalist of the alternative media in Turkey, and many others.

I decided to take Marco Kuhne one of the producers of a, translated in English as, as a study case of an alternative media in action. Marco Kuhne considers himself and his colleagues work as a video activists part of an alternative journalism. The reason being that they try to make video of different activist groups mostly in Germany and also in other countries throughout the Europe. They claim that mainstream media often shows the violent images of protesters and by doing that they are shown as hooligans, criminals in a way that police is trying to handle them and their behavior even by force if necessary. In this picture police becomes the hero and defender and stabilizer of national peace and security. The other approach of mainstream media towards the activist groups is that they completely or nearly completely ignore them; large peaceful demonstrations become just a side note in the newspapers or are not mentioned at all.

That is where Graswurzel or Grassroots enter in the scene. They try to show both sides of the activist movements and what activists have to say for themselves, they give them the space and chance to express their views and intentions. Grassroots follow the activists with cameras and try not to get involved in a sense by adding additional comments or notes to the videos, although sometimes it is necessary since activists are not always willing to give comments. Grassroots also don’t add any additional side effects to the videos, music and so forth, they try to be as close to reality as possible, in a way they try to be a clear medium through which the audience will get better understanding of the activists and their intentions. Mainstream media on the contrary is mostly all about commenting, censoring, even adding musical and video side effects to make the news more attractive lift the adrenaline in the audience and heavily representing as well as supporting one side of the argument strongly and therefore not creating the objectivity.

Since grassroots are not a mainstream media they don’t have a powerful, TV channel such as BBC News, CNN they have to rely on technology such as internet, and upload their videos on Web sites, YouTube, and ITunes etc. That doesn’t stop the audience, the number of views on YouTube for example show that many of the videos published by grassroots have been viewed by thousands of people. They also don’t work with sponsors and are not commercially supported, which of course limits the financial income, but on the other hand if they did so, they would no longer represent the alternative journalism which is mainly supported by donations and volunteer work.

Audience attending the SMNP seminar last week in Izmir was impressed and even humored by the video presented by Grassroots showing the rather unorthodox protest of hundreds of clowns against nuclear factory. Giving us the images and inspiring idea how protest can be a creative process, in which we are all invited, once we realize that we have a power to say no to environmental dangers, government/political decisions etc.

The small critique that I would add here would be the website of, since the producers are all Germans and most of the protests are happening in Germany, the website as well is in a German language, I am sure that if English version on the website was available as well, they would attract wider, international audience hungry to see more.

Finally, it is important to have alternative media such as grassroots in every country, it is important to show both sides of the story and give the opportunity not just to the powerful, rich corporations and institutions but also to us – an ordinary people who make the majority of society, who question and criticize the government and environmental threatening decisions taken without the consensus and knowledge of majority of society. This kind of media and this videos may be seen as small attempts to break into society’s consciousness, but in a long run some of the videos and attempts may turn into historical events.




I firstly take hand ‘Four Approaches To Alternative Media’. In this chapter, alternative media which are divided into four categories which are called ‘Alternative media, Community media, Civil society media, and Rhizomatic media.’ These four approaches of alternative media which is grasped under two categories. These are media centered and society centered. First approach is the community media . Tönnies (1969)  underlines that community is defined by the presence of close and concrete human ties and by  collective relations but there are some questions to our mind and about geograpy and ethnicity of communities. Actually, it isn’t necessary to  ive in same geograpy and have same ethnicites. because Popple (1995:4) thinks that people sharing a common condition or problem can also be seen as a community of interest.(These are taken from chapter.) Actually, I think that one of the most important reconceptualization about community is Anderson’s Imagined Community because people who don’t see or don’t talk or don’t communicate with each other because media reach them and facilitates their communication processes and they interact with this and their distance isn’t crucial. For example; I live in İzmir and everyday I read newspaper Yeniasır which is local newspaper in an Aegean Era and I read people who live Manisa and there is important societal problems happen even if I don’t see and I don’t talk them, I have an idea people, people live condition, their problems and so media which faciliates that reach news without limitations, space, time, distance. In addition to this, one of the important issue about community media is geograpy and ethnicity . On the other hand, access and participation is penetrated in this chapter. Participation is easy for every people to participate , represent themselves and I think that the most crucial thing is that people shouldn’t become professional writer  to promulgate their voice, to write their opinions without any limitations. Participation, following Pateman (1970:71) can thus be seen as a process in which the individual members have a certain degree of power to influence or determine the outcome of that process and full participation is seen as a process where each individual member of a decision making body has equal power to determine the outcome of decisions so these show that what community media is about. Actually, communities are hold a place in our lifes because people gather around some place in terms of their opinions, their political perspectives, their identities, their jobs of course there are many reasons.For example; political parties in Turkey like CHP, AKP, DSP etc, for example associations like Kardelenler, Toplum Gönüllüleri , Haytap etc. They live all time, they aren’t occur with media but the most crucial thing and different characteristic is that alternative media facilitate and provide active actions between people , establish huge networks between them and gather around through alternative media without meeting same place, without face to face communication with each other.

The other approach is that Alternative media as an alternative to a mainstream media which is introduced in this chapter as distinction between mainstream and alternative media. In this approach, alternative media associates with ideology, domination and Gramscian notion of hegemony and mainstream media which is ideological and it is conducted by the state, politicians, and private sector. As I look these two types of media, there are binary oppositons between them. One of them is free but other is controllable, on the one hand there is an hegemony which relates with hierarchical relations but on the one hand there is non hierarchic relations so there is two different picture as I think. Undoubtedly, many people who defend alternative media because it includes democratic environment, every people have right to talk with each other but I think that it isn’t possible to say that alternative media is dominant than mainstream media especially in Turkey. Yes it is totally relate with political and economy but ruling party which captures Turkish media, sell channels and manipulates their ideologies, their ideas to masses without taking their consent or overrating what public think. For example, SamanYolu, Kanal 7, TRT some best known examples of what ruler party do in Turkey. Even if they don’t have other private channels, they set their agendas and effect their news content about which one is available their interest or not and formulate discourses according to their ideologies in these channels so I think that alternative media is big area which includes networks between people who lives differents parts of the society, or country and they aren’t prevented and they are so free to express their opinions in alternative media if it isn’t adequate power toward mainstream media but I think that war between alternative media and mainstream media won’t finish in terms of politic, economic issues.

Mainstream vs. Alternative Media in this link a man who start to talk about Prof. James. Terry,who is Professor of Media, and he takes hand lack of crackle journalism , role of journalists, mainstream media to conspiracy theories. He says that  sixty three of American people believe a conspiracy and he continue with characteristic of traditional media which is unquestionable, untouch, and not personal and not care about people according to him. He shows that International Heralb Newspaper which is an International version of New York Times. He shows some stories and articles. Stories that he show associates with Obama, his plans, his administration, his expectations and his unsuccessfulness about elaboration for the first time. What he says about this issue is there isn’t any discussion about crime, justice, constitution between people , professors, speakers. The most crucial thing which he underlines that an article which is about  Marxism. He say again there isn’t discussion between American people who are in a street. The only thing is that promote Marxism. What I learn or observe something from this video is that yes there is an alternative media which surrounds our lifes with more access but on the other hand, there is real thing which we can’t prevent powerful people who are in mainstream media because they set their agendas and manipulate people opinion about what they should be think and without any rebellion to them.

The other approach which hold a place in this chapter is Civil Society Media. It is explained very ideas of citizenship and examined under two conceptions. One of them generalist conception of Hegel and Marx and other is minimalist conception of Gramsci and Habermas. The best thing to describe civil society is that it is third voice and its place between state media and private commercial media. Girard’s who gives example community radio and he says that community radio listeners are producers, managers, directors an deven owners of the stations. So one question to come my mind. If I look this example, Is it possible to say that community media relate with civil society media? Are they depend to each other? Undoubtedly, there are differences but which characteristic of them discriminate with another so I give example about civil society media. I think that BIANET (Independent Communication Network) is  available example for this type of media. What it means that it is a project  is one of the hubs formed in Turkey in the last decade within the framework of the struggle for freedom of expression and communication. It coming into existence is simultaneous with the huge collapse of the Turkish mainstream media in the 1990s. With 2000, it started to Internet publishing. Why I write this network because people who are Turk or not, or live in Turkey or another country they have chance to write about political, economic , social issues. (These informations are taken from article of Ertuğrul Kürkçü about BIANET) his network neither depend to private hands nor to the state. Their audiences, visitors are publishers and they are independent. They aren’t any restriction on them to write something so this is my example about this type of media. Unfortunately, today it isn’t possible to talk about variety types of and example of Civil Society Media because there are some economic reason behind them but I think in todays capitalist life it isn’t easy to gather people around one space or find volunteer people to write their opinions without paying money and encourage them to write their reactions in todays life condition.

The last approach of the alternative media is Rhizome Media in this chapter. Deleuze and Guattari (1987) enumerate a series of characteristics of the rhizome – the principles of connection and heterogenity, multiplicity asignifying rupture, cartograpy, and decalcomania. Connection and heterogenity imply that any point of the network can be connected to any other point. I think that if we talk about about rhizomic media , it occur with technology. Why I think that if I take hand televisions, for example as I watch Tv, I see people who live distance part of the world, have an idea about what is going thorough the world and have chance to connect, I think that it is firstly realize by TV but after then Internet which networks establish and people who connect with them, they have chance to see each other like Skype. We have communicate and talk with e mail, send photos, send something and reach which people that person live distance part or not so also if I take hand social media, I have chance to contanct with friend who lives Chinese so for my opinion before technology networks didn’t establish between people, country, companies, associations or other thing. Maybe there is limited opportunity, there need to be much time but with technology there is time space compression especially under the rhizomic media and because of all of these one question come to my mind Is Rhizomic media is examined under Network Society?

In conclusion, I talk about the kinds of alternative media which is penetrared in chapter. Undoubtedly, there are different versions of alternative media which have different characteristic one another but mutual characteristic of them is unfolding new world for people because in this world not only people don’t hold a place in this media but also their communication process is more active. As they communicate  with each other, they have right to represent themselves in terms of their opinions, beliefs ,lifes, ideologies etc. In addition to this, they react about any issue in a rapidly way like political, economic, social issues about their countries. I think that the big and most important difference of alternative media is that includes mass participation and there isn’t any elimination between people . I think that this is modern public sphere of Habermas terms. Also, it enlarges, strenght day by day, I think that it will become second world of people and I believe that it ceases to mainstream media and another forces may be in ten years.


As an average consumer of media in general we tend to think that media consists largely of popular TV and radio channels, respectable newspapers, even songs and movies that are advertised and repeated numerous times either through tv advertising, ads and jumbo posters.

But are we really always limited to only these chosen few options (again chosen by whom and with what intention?)? Alternative media argues that this is not the case, that we average media consumers have a choice to look further and explore different spheres of media, namely alternative media. Now the questions arise: How to recognize that a certain product of media is and can be categorized as an ‘alternative media’? What are the criterias that classify certain media products as alternative media?  And is there really always a strict line that separates and files one media as a mainstream and the other as an alternative media? Lastly, once we have determined what the alternative media is, what can we expect from it; how can it add to our political, social, environmental etc. views and opinions?

Laclau and Mouffe argue that only one approach to define alternative media doesn’t give an overview of the components that construct the identity of alternative media, “ There is no single underlying principle fixing – and hence constituting- the whole field of differences (quoted in ) Understanding Alternative Media p. 5 Laclau and Mouffee 1985: 111). Therefore a new multi-theoretical approach model was proposed, classified in four sections: 1. Serving a community 2. An alternative to mainstream 3. Part of civil society 4. Rhizome.

If we take for example blogging, and try to test it against this four approaches to see if blogging can be categorized as an alternative media. Firstly, although blogging doesn’t acquire any specific geographical area, it exists in the virtual world, and can be said to be an online community, where people with similar interests, desires, similar mentalities join together without any restrictions. You can be poor, bald; a teacher with interests in fashion, a teenager with identification crisis… no one can prevent you to join the online community you are interested in. And as a participant in the media, even though it may be mico-media and your opinion may never be a cause of a great social or economic changes, as a participant of a certain blog, such as very popular Facebook or tweeter, you can express yourself, give a comment, entertain yourself and others and so in a way you shape the blog together with other participants.

Secondly, blogging can be against or in a conflict with mainstream media, since blogging is a small-scale and has usually a specific interest, more importantly it is not corrupted or bought by wealth advertising and economy companies, and therefore it is not responsible or restricted in its content. However, not all blogs match the above description; many are created by commercial owned companies and therefore serve the purpose of people with different interests.

Thirdly, blogging can be a part of civil society working against the hegemony, talking or reacting against the power elite. It certainly applies the bottom-up process, voices of people from lower classes can be raised, and an ordinary person can express his or her opinion, comment with other blogging members , contributing to the build up of civil society in general.

Lastly, in the fourth approach offered by Deleuz and Guattari with metaphor of rhizome, blogging is not hierarchical, everyone is equal, user becomes a producer. Therefore we can say it’s heterogeneous, there is no big center around which the production would be circling, on the contrary, every member of blogging can raise a new topic, question or open a discussion.

In conclusion, alternative media offers a choice to oppressed, suppressed, or simple to an ordinary people who would like to express themselves through media no matter how small the impact of their voices may be. However, I believe we should be cautious when defining what an alternative and what mainstream media is, or at least we should see them as processes rather than a complete, unchangeable. As stated in the Bailey (2008; p.18) “what is considered ‘alternative; at a certain point in time could be defined as mainstream at another point in time.”