Reduce cost and improve by open sources softwares

Turkish idiom said that, two hands better than a hand. Commons knowledge is the best practice for it. Wide places are ensured for Wikipedia and similar practice by commons knowledge.
What is commons knowledge? If you write on tool of Wikipedia, what is common knowledge, you find this reply: “Common knowledge is knowledge that is known by everyone or nearly everyone, usually with reference to the community in which the term is used. Common knowledge need not concern one specific subject, e.g., science or history. Rather, common knowledge can be about a broad range of subjects, including science, literature, history, entertainment etc. Often, common knowledge does not need to be cited. Common knowledge is distinct from general knowledge. The latter has been defined by differential psychologists as referring to ‘culturally valued knowledge communicated by a range of non-specialist media’, and is considered an aspect of ability related to intelligence. Therefore there are substantial individual differences in general knowledge as opposed to common knowledge”.
But on the other hand, commons knowledge has to utilize another side which called software and open sources. Software and open sources are producing plenty of practices, which most knows is Linux, for commons knowledge. Together to produce is developer movement.
For instance, Samsung uses this way. Samsung works with wide numerous of scholars at many countries and universities. In this way, the project that produces in somewhere can develop by another scholar. These ways of work reduces costs and improve the project for Samsung. Hence, in recent years, Samsung has carried out a major attack against its rivals.

“Each of us is journalists!”

I took and published that on my instagram, twitter, and facebook account this photo by my smart phone when protest of Berkin Elvan funeral1. I was a citizen journalist who is the taking photo and producing information. There were many of them like me.

Internet, social media, blogs and etc. have been changing ours participatory habits. We are not only audience. Even we have become information producer. Now, especially young people are following agenda by the social media. Because, social media tools are faster than traditional media. And everyone can be citizen journalist on it. Social media tools have become more popular and nowadays further people wants to share their experiences about life. Therefore, numbers of blogs writer are increasing each passing day.

Conspicuously, columnists are preferring to write on their own blogs too. In my opinion, columnists who write mainstream media newspapers do not inexpression all their own thought. Blogs are very independent space for them. For instance, Tufan Türenç who is columnist on the Hürriyet or Ruşen Çakır who is columnist on Vatan have own blogs2. They share all new articles by social media channels. By this way, they have always been in relationship with citizen journalist and their audiences.

One of the most important news magazine which name is Newsweek was closed on 20123. Because, magazine could not struggle with digital publishing. The circulation of printed media is decreasing each passing day. Nonetheless digital media followers are increasing. In the future, digital media will replace printed media and citizen journalists will be effective more than today.




3, Access Date, 11th May 2014

Spiral of silence of mass media and citizen journalism

Elisabeth Noelle Neumann was a German political scientist, offered a theory that explains the growth and spread of ‘public opinion’. According to her she believed that public opinion shaped by mass media. Therefore her theory, spiral of silence, said mainstream media shows us what government allow or want. Therefore she believes that the media accelerate the muting of the minority in the spiral of silence.
There are so many examples in the world to support this theory. For instance, Arab Spring that is a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests in Arab world. It began in 2010. Mainstream media didn’t give news about protest, conflicts, or wounded people. The government and also mainstream media didn’t want to dissemination of the protest because if people were gathered the rebellion would grow through the civil war. After a while, people act in concert with social media. Although Arab countries do not use social media in daily they gathered around Facebook immediately. They contact with people in order to inform what is happening. It created broad platform for their struggle. Eventually they knew they weren’t alone or minority throughout their struggle.










An example from Turkey, during ‘Gezi Resistance’ a few Gezi news were occurred in mainstream media for instance the tv channel of CNN Turk broadcasted ‘Penguin Documentary’. Despite that people around Turkey organized protests, collect informations, shared videos and photographs and disseminate events So that facebook and Twitter users increased gradually. Additionally many alternative newspapers and journals published that news and alternative media channels broadcasted them mostly with a live broadcast such as Halk Tv, Ulusal Channel, Sözcü Newspaper and so on.










In conclusion, both citizen journalism and participatory journalism provide to create own media build by activist and also local or marginalized people in order to struggle of right to demand information and build communication network.


Griffen, Em, 2009, A first look at communication theory (7th ed.), New York, NY: McGraw Hill

Digital Stories for ‘love, freedom or unspoken subjects’

Digital stories are expressive medium that combine photographs, video, animation, sound and so on. In another world we can say digital stories are multimedia movies that offer a new practice to ordinary people in order to make voice heard present in emotionally, effectively… It is a way to follow emancipatory feelings. British photographer, author, and educator Daniel Meadows defined that digital stories are “multimedia sonnets from the people”.

Digital media embraces digital stories with different types of topics in broad perspective. It can be about business, education or personal stories. For instance, photography videos that include slideshow of special moments photographs give a chance to express ‘love’. In another example, the video can be used to celebrate ‘Mother’s Day’ with photographs and also music. But there is another way to reflect feelings with a sense of awareness.

There is a video below to stand out ‘Mother’s Day’ with using interesting way that never be forgatten.

Apart from this, digital stories can be used to express realities in depth in the world through violence, discrimination, resistance, gender issue, refugees, bullying and so forth. In the main digital storytelling represent events or issues that ignored by traditional media mediums. In one sense digital storytelling offers free circulation in order to be a voice for unspoken people.
In this respect it can be said that digital storytelling plays an important role in people’s life.

Scope of Digital Storytelling

Digital story telling immensely empowers subjects that mostly ignored, displaced and marginalized by the means of mainstream communication. Flows of technological tool make possible to share, produce and contribute to the production process of uncontrolled communication and this kind of activity that aiming to introduce ideas, feelings and stories create democratic communication process because marginalized subjects hold their position in order to determine their own expression any longer rather than to be passive agents.
Digital story telling can be taken up for different purposes. In one sense, it can be seen as a tool to release free circulation of the untold stories of marginalized groups therefore, it can be an activity of human rights group in order to take attention and express their existence in a more convenient way.
The second purpose can be that to direct and learn people about their feelings. I mean that in some certain condition, people could express themselves more difficultly. For instance, owing to gendered discrimination in the society, large number of individual hesitates to express their sexual orientation or gender identity. In addition to that, a lot of women are suppressed with the patriarchal discourse. Thus, my suggestion is that digital storytelling can be tool to activate such silenced subjects of the society so that it should be realized that digital story telling both has an internal and external influence. One is occur through intercommunication within other people but it also has a potential to touch self-enclosed subjects. Besides, it does not have to make affiliation with the silenced groups. Every individual could benefit from it in order to express his or her personal point of view, expression via the digitalized stories. In any case it has a potential to liberate people, liberate communication processes.
Tout ensemble, it is highly influential method to activate and creates free subjects and non-hegemonic discourses. Thence, the technique should be circulated and shared in order to enlarge its scope around world. And, human rights organization can be benefit in order to empower their target groups with via digital story telling.

Emancipatory Potential of Non-Linear Narrative in Digital Storytelling


“My practical experimentation has led me to believe that when movie sequences are linked together non-linearly, under computer control and with possibilities for user interaction, new forms or paradigms can potentially emerge.” Chris Hales

In the framework of digital storytelling, the first thing should be questioned is that to what extent it can ensure its creative potential. Therefore, probably when mentioned about digital storytelling, it perceived as linear that constitutes fixed narrative in general terms.  As it known as likewise writing, it has specifically introduction, body and conclusion parts, so digital storytelling comprehended as juxtaposition of in sequence moving images, combining sounds and so on that accessible by means of one click. However, it is not simple that as predicted, because in the sense of digital storytelling, the non-linear narrative with its disruptive characteristics comes into existence in order to challenge the linear narrative that only move from beginning to end.

This kind of narrative does not have any concern about neither linear chronological sense such as flashbacks or flashforwards techniques in the cinema nor cause and affect relation within the storyline, on the contrary through the pieces of narrative that combined unconsciously or consciously in order to make narrative meaningful story.  In particular, the most distinctive characteristic of non-linear digital storytelling is that providing interactive media with respect to participation of audience in production process. Therefore, it does not practice one way flows of communication in opposition linear digital storytelling and through two ways flows of communication narrative can be created by audience own. In this way audience does not force to be interested in selected narratives, so it is possible to say that this non-linear story telling has emancipatory potential also that gives freedom to narrate and choice to audience. This non-linear digital storytelling as an experience can offer story about memory that reanimated by voiceover or educational purpose and so on. As most importantly it gives chance to combine different digital elements that constitute storytelling that reflect your experience. Consequently, it is possible to think about non-linear digital storytelling under the root of alternative media with its emancipatory potential, while linear storytelling refers to mainstream media due to its repressive potential especially in terms of creativity.

Case Study

This web site under the ‘interactive’ category provides lots of example of non-linear digital storytelling experience. Above all, not only provide participation interactively, but also ensure creation of own story.

It define core objective in that way:

“But when things evolve and paradigms shift, we get a chance to try new things, to meet new people, and go to new places…

It’s the result of artists and storytellers of all sorts utilizing new technology, to explore new forms of creation, for a new kind of Canada.

The stories they’re telling here are new, but share a lot in common with the work that came before: they present distinct voices, strong points-of-view, and unique perspectives. They also share the same ambition to provoke discussion, spur debate and challenge the way we think.

So let the conversation begin. The digital space, more than anything, is the new meeting place – the school gymnasium or church basement of our time. It’s where we connect as a community, look forward to the future, and embrace change together, in order to make change happen.”

  • Territories :  “An exploration of new urban landscapes that records the passage of time and the encroachment of consumption on the spaces in our lives.”

  • The Hole Story:  “The Hole Story Interactive is a geolocation web project through which visitors experience the stages of the mining cycle right where they live.”

In this digital platform, all experiences can give chance to audience whose story will follow. Their interfaces also part of the storytelling. Through providing interaction, it give sense of connectivity to audience at the same time.

Beat Generation as a Cultural Jamming (Tactics of Cultural Resistance)

When in need, people have to come up with creative ways in order to resist the mainstream. So, new tactics that are both clever and aesthetic are needed in order to counter the existing cultural forms.

Tactics of cultural resistance can be seen not only in media but in literature too. When we think of demonstrations of cultural resistance tactics in literature, it would be ungrateful to leave the important literary movement called ‘Beat’ culture out. The name ‘Beat’ can be perceived as ‘tired’ or ‘beaten down’. However, Jack Kerouac –one of Beat movement’s leading poets- tells that the name suggests “upbeat” or “beatific”.

The cut-up technique used in the poems of William Seward Burroughs is one of the cultural jamming tactics that influenced cultural resistance. His technique is to cut the articles from the newspapers like New York Herald Tribune, Paris Herald Tribune, and paste these non-linearly to create new poems.

Considering its resisting art form, it can be said that Beat movement has also influenced other cultural resistance forms such as post-modern literature and cyberpunk genre -also rock ‘n’ roll and punk music-, with its unusual tactics.


Bailey, O. G., Cammaerts, B. and Carpentier, N. (2008) Understanding Alternative Media.

Berkshire: Open University Press, Chapter 10

Examples for William S. Burroughs’ Works:

Cut-Up Poems from Minutes to Go

The Importance of Community Radio and Decent Programming Skills (Community Radio)

Radio has been one of the most used medium since it was first developed. Before the invention of other information technologies (i.e. computers or televisions), radio played a great role in societies. Unlike newspapers or magazines, it does not require literacy to be used as an alternative to other press. That is why it was an important invention for the people around the world.

Another main importance of the radio is that it can be used as a public service oriented. For its ease of operation and ease of transportation everyone could access to the medium. If a radio’s main purpose is community service, then it will make its programming due to the issues or problems of the public. For example, if someone has an idea or have something to say about an issue, then s/he can go to one of these community radios and have a say regarding the problem. This way they can reach many people to take action or recruit for their own causes.

Even though it is a good thing that every person can participate in a community radio, not every volunteer has what it takes to make a decent programming. Therefore, the lack of skills or unprofessionalism of volunteers that want to do the programming may decrease the quality of the radio in technical ways. This is the reason why people should get more experienced or be led by those who are experienced in radio programming in order to make their voices heard in a decent and more professional way.


Dunaway, David (1998) “Community Radio at the Beginning of the 21st Century”, in The  Public/Javnost, pp. 87-103.

The Ideal Democratic World (Participatory Video and Access TV)

Since people with their own opinions about certain issues can participate in these types of televisions, it can be said that unlike general mainstream types of TV stations, public access televisions have been more democratically programmed.

With public access television with a radical programming, audiences become programmers of a television station in a way. For example, in the United States, with the cable TV, come many stations that are open to public access for a little fee. Ordinary people can join to political debates nationwide. Also, people from minorities can participate and express their ideas about political agendas or give voice to their own problems.

The freedom of speech that is protected by the US constitution enables people to represent their ideas or opposing views publicly. Alliance for Community Media (ACM) is known for its policy to preserve the freedom of speech with its support to the community media. However, the neo-liberal laws enacted by the government that work for the advanced capitalist economy, they have to try harder in order to maintain the freedom of speech of community media and return to its better days before 2005 law that promoted franchising legislation of media.

If the participatory democratic theory reaches its goal utilizing participatory media and the freedom of speech, then the ideal democratic world in which people express their ideas freely without having to think about making profit or crossing the boundaries of censorship would be achieved.


Stein, L. (1998) “Democratic ‘Talk’, Access Television and Participatory Political   Communication”,  The Public/Javnost, vol. 5 (2), pp. 21-34.

Alliance for Community Media Website:

Choose Your Own Adventure or Digital Stroytelling

A generation was growth with “Choose Your Own Adventure” in Turkey and world. This series is a series of children’s game books where each story is written from a second-person point of view, with the reader assuming the role of the protagonist and making choices that determine the main character’s actions and the plot’s outcome. Choose Your Own Adventure was one of the most popular children’s series during the 1980s and 1990s, selling more than 250 million copies between 1979 and 1998.

Technology is developing. Therefore, habits are changing too. Reading and sharing habits have very big differences than before. Hence, “Digital Storytelling” is a variation of Choose Your Own Adventure. Nowadays, sharing of individual experiences has wide space in personal social life. Especially, ordinary people, who want to be a pioneer or leader for something, want to share their experiences. Digital storytelling is the very important space for this. Everyone can use any part of media (video, photo or etc.). On the other hand, everyone can make interpretation about story. In this way, storytelling and human relations grow stronger. This relation is not established hegemonic. These horizontal relation positions ensure equality for everyone.