After the period of World War 2 communication practices became accelerated and they were supported by countries` governments. In addition foreign policy of ABD and those communications practices are parallel each other. Mass communication was standard and propulsive forces of modernity. Western Country could be adopted their values in to Eastern Countries thanks to mass media. Therefore they could be modern. Modernity and its effects on the Eastern Society still continue. One of the movie it is called Babel have many example the effects of modernity, orientalism so on
Is this what we want when we have? Generally speaking, we are the victims of commercialized mass culture today, being sacrificed for the good of those having this kind of monopoly in their hands. Not a traditional food but I am sure as you are that there is a generation growing up with this kind of diet culture today and by means of certain media, these things are displayed to us in a gorgeous formation. But do you think are they as genuine as they seem to be in commercials as well? No one says yes to this; but no one stands more than 1 week without being a part of this trend. So, don’t you think while we are eating these burgers, those providing us with these goods are eating ourselves up in fact?
The meaning of “participation” is often a explanation of the organizational culture defining it. Participation has been variously described as essential within agencies as it is in the field and as an educational and empowering process necessary to correct power imbalances between rich and poor. It has been conceived to embrace the idea that all “stakeholders” should take part in decision making and it has been more described as the extraction of local knowledge to design programs and changes. In this manner, resulting of development communication failure which the paradigm tries to shape society without considering traditions, belief, attitudes of human, participation paradigm recognized wide cultural differences between different parts of the world.
The central idea of the paradigm is that there is no universal development model; development is an integral, multi-dimensional, and dialectic process that can differ from society to society’. Because of the different understandings of development across different societies, the needs of a development project have to be defined by the people involved in the situation rather than by However, participation paradigm could be used to by locals who want to fight against environmental, social changes.
Eurogold, Bergama struggle is an good example for participation paradigm but vice versa. Eurogold (a multinational company formed by Canada, Australia and Germany) came to Turkey as a result of invitation by Ex-president Turgut Özal -Turkish version of Thatcher and Reagan- in order to search for gold mines on Bergama region which is close to İzmir. The company would use cyanide for extracting gold from earth and thus damage their natural environment. Peasants have realized what will happen to them if they would let the company operate after watching a documentary from New Zealand on TV. As a result of the act, they started their resistance moments. Eurogold invited journalists to Bergama in order to take media into its service. However the peasants cut off the road of the bus while shouting, “We do not want gold with cyanide”.
With this act, a long lasting fight has been started between peasants and Eurogold. Like Eurogold, peasants are also use media but alternative one to announce that cyanide will be ruining their village and environment. After many years, the peasant movement is still ongoing without any result. The resistance of the peasant people in Bergama is a symbol for many reasons. The peasants of started when they watched a “gold rush” experience, which took place in New Zealand and discussed the harms. Global neo-liberalism is got caught on the communication networks
We are living in a such world that we come up any kind of products served for us concerning certain economic foundation. Written by Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice is one of the world classics today. It is now for sure that since first published in 1813, the novel and the plot itself has been transformed into many different versions around the world. What are the effects behind that? It is all good to say that different types of a product are disseminated with the help of the media, but this case rather depends on economic concerns and, according to me opinion, it is generally the case in todays world.
We face Mona Lisas on the cover of notebooks at stationery,on the mugs we drink coffee, and t-shirts we wear. The Pride and Prejudice is another instance for this case showing us that even in art and its subtexts, there is economic concerns involved in. The book itself has been broadcast, used for TV commercial and even filmed, the title of which is changed into the ‘Bride and Prejudice’ for the Bollywood. This is true to say that all these things make our world enriched; but, I reckon that art , at least literature should not be degraded into such a place in the last instance for economic policies by the authorities to open up new industries. Ms. Austen would have appreciated that even 198 years later her work-of-art is still popular; but I am highly sure that she would rather not wanted such a place it is unconventionally in now.
Once, I encountered with a story. I would like to share it with you as far as I recall since I reckon it is relevant to this week’s topic.
There is a big business giant making shoe manufacturing. Once, the general manager tries to define a new strategy to have great profits. Therefore, he sends one of his personnel to make market research in one of the underdeveloped countries in Africa. The responsible researcher goes there and what he comes up with the idea is that it would not be so profitable to make marketing and sales there since the local people walk on barefoot. However, after a while the firm sends another researcher to the same place. After returning back to the premise, the researcher says: “There is a great potential there because no one wears shoe; we should start marketing right away.”
What makes me think about this story is that there can different kinds of views and purposes over an issue. The more variety to which people and set their mind, the more results they get. Here, we can evaluate the story in two ways: the first one tells us that sometimes it can be hard to overreach the established regulations or traditions when something new is planned to be introduced. On the other hand, the latter fact shows us that sometimes a deficiency can yield to alternative and even advantageous consequences. Here, the second researcher has gone that place and seen that well the people do not have a shoe to wear; but this is not necessarily mean that it is impossible to make them wear.
As far as this week’s topic is considered, we have discussed about dominant and participatory paradigm. Following the first example, we can see that being barefoot is a king kind of established regulation, a convention even though there are certain economic development problems. Therefore, the researcher is of the opinion that it is not logical to start advertisement campaigns, marketing, etc. through the media since this society is closed to outer novelties according to the dominant paradigm. However, what the second researcher comes up with that they can introduce the new product to their potential market by means of certain media there. How they manage this is only possible with the help of the local people in disseminating the idea as far as the participatory paradigm is taken into account. There are, of course, some disadvantages and advantages at stake; but this is a matter of what people aspire to achieve and how far they want to get while introducing something new.
Mass media if have control over very few people in the country it can be created some problems. Because content of news type and any other features of new can be controlled by people who have owner of mass media tools. Therefore content of news lose its impartiality. In addition some theorist support that people are not passive in this affective process. They promote that it is ` passive transmitters` . On the other hand according to some researchers people ability to protect affecting which are come from media. Their idea is `active transmitter`. However Lazersfeld point that the affection level of individual depends of their socio economic level that are income , education etc.
Herbert Irving Schiller is an American media critic, sociologist, author, and scholar. Schiller studies on examination of the role of popular culture in the spread of American dominance. He claimed that U.S. corporate domination of cultural life is deployed to especially developing nations. His theory can be summarized as follows. USA imported goods from corporate of Europe and Middle East territories and prevents them to open new markets. The goal is to have all energy resources in the mentioned places of the world. In return of keeping energy resources on hand. In order to do this USA sells its consumption ideology by using mass media to Europe and Middle East. Mass Media is the key role of the marketing action. Media owners in USA use propaganda technique while doing this. In this manner they hire ‘clever’ people who are called mind directors to attain his main target. Mind director’s role is to produce the ‘news, ideals, beliefs, and to shape them to be able to distribute to masses. They want to keep status quo by manufacturing consent. Manufacturing consent is a kind of manipulation. Manipulation is the compulsion tool to auditing news flow and it fills the people brains with images, dreams, stereotypes which will never be achieved without consuming. The media create myths which support their view. Those myths are described as ‘Individualism & Personnel Choice; Unchanged Human Nature, No Social Conflict, Multiple information that is selectable.’
The effects of mass media regarding above claim, can be seen by looking TIME magazine covers published in USA, Europe and Asia. As you are aware of TIME is an American news magazine. A European edition (Time Europe, formerly known as Time Atlantic) is published from London. Time Europe covers the Middle East, Africa and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition (Time Asia) is based in Hong Kong. Time is the world’s largest weekly news magazine, and has a domestic audience of 20 million and a global audience of 25 million.
Time Magazine cover in USA which shows mind director’s job is an example claiming that ‘people minds shaped’