Welcome to the class
Common knowledge, or other forms of free distributions to any particular software is the space that take place in the spaces of internet, no doubt that they contribute to creation of free spaces yet, I could not find such thing that create revolutionary alterations or urgently important discovery. For instance, Wikipedia, in my point of view, helps to enlarge mind and also make easier access to knowledge. In order not to break the tradition of flows, let’s talk about Wikipedia as a case.
Wikipedia offer us number of different language so that I believe that, it smoothes the way of access to knowledge and it break the predominant position of the English language. Yet, it can be criticized that English or other Western language like French, German, and Spanish are still the dominant ones. Yet, this criticizing does not come to me fair because it is related to its user because it offers free distribution. In stress, it illustrated quite important phenomena which is about rates of the internet usage, this circumstances indicated that usage of internet more developed in the Western countries and, ‘old’ colonies of the West do not have same opportunities to log on to knowledge.
Besides, Wikipedia has been criticizing in terms of its many dimensions such as free labour, quality of the content, and creation of technocratic elites. In fact, it is again not fair to criticize that its quality because it is open to intervention. Also, the risk of technocracy is common any form of social media practices. The important thing is that not to yield to the technocracy. In addition to that, concept of the production of labour has been radically changed in the contemporary period and this is the consent that given ‘voluntarily’ so that I do not think that there is exploitation of the labour in Wikipedia, it just back up the free- labour. Therefore, my revised generalization argued that critics to Wikipedia or other common knowledge sources are so speculative therefore, critics do not work properly.
Social networks are groups of people connected by one or more types of social relationships, such as friendship, kinship or common interests.
The most popular, certainly are: Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Sonic, Bebo, MySpace, Hi5, Orkut, Friendster, Ning, Badoo and MyLife among others.
These social networks offer many advantages over e-mail, forums and chat, asynchronous and given his personal character, and the relative simplicity of its interfaces.
The advantages of networking
Considered by many the major advantage is that allows us to learn and internalize norms and values needed to relate with other individuals, either with friends from the past, current or new friends.
As in real life, in the virtual universe, there is a big community within each social network, in which all can participate, but with the proviso adapt to their standards, so it is necessary to know the netiquette of social networks.
Therefore users of social networks become active members of a small virtual society, where they can interact with others for the purposes they wish, friendship, love, business contacts, exchange of views, businesses, etc..
Since the emergence of the Internet in the world, has completely changed the way people find work.
Many companies have social environments in which communicate job opportunities, receive resumes and job interviews even realize. Besides using these platforms you can do all kinds of contacts, which can be used to find some work, they can even recommend to get a job.
A social network that focuses on this category is LinkedIn, so if you are interested in making professional and business contacts, it is important to take advantage of this network.
This category is closely related to the previous one, but the difference is not about getting a job, because you have a physical or virtual (Web site) you want to promote business.
It’s not just advertising to get new customers, but it also seeks to identify with the brand, important information, reviews and comments of the product or service, allowing you to correct anything that is wrong and achieve strengthen the relationship with your customers or consumers.
Interestingly, it is free, but requires time and effort, both for a small business that want to get noticed, or for a longer stay positioned brand you like on the first level.
The benefits we provide social networks are not just for businesses but for us consumers, and we will receive best deals, best deal and solutions to our problems related to products or services.
Although social networks are not focused in obtaining the information we provide highly relevant information through web sites, blogs and our contacts.
From minor issues like events to attend this weekend, the birthday of a friend or the latest releases at the cinema, even more relevant information and publications on topics of our interest, current news or important events in the life of our friends or contacts.
The primary information we receive is a significant advantage because the reader is facing the source, thus get better results.
Either way, social media provide us with a wealth of information, more social and personal.
The disadvantages of Social media are:
• Exhibition of our private lives, if not properly configured privacy.
• There may be cases of impersonation.
• Lack of control data.
• They can become addictive.
• Can steal content we publish.
• Can be used by criminals for data on crime victims.
• Threats are made, discriminate, are scams and inciting violence through internet, because anyone can create a false identity that will be very difficult to discover.
No one denies the great potential of these social networks, but be very careful, especially when there are children in the home.
Therefore it is recommended to maintain certain nonpublic personal information; on the other hand, be respectful and not insulting, not incite violence or discrimination, or anything we do not like us.
Collaboration, mutual support and exchange is possible in numerous private and public spaces in the Collaborative Web. On the Web, the term “collaborative” sent to the various tools, sites and public or private social networks that allow users particularly:
Share useful information with others (eg testimony, review).
Exchange goods or services.
Communicate in real time.
Work simultaneously on projects with others.
There are different types of collaborative webs:
- Review sites and forums:
These spaces are characterized by mutual aid: each member of the community is both producer of information (for example, review services or products) and recipient of these.
- Wedges of services between individuals
The sites of exchange of goods and services or equipment rentals between individuals.
Sharing sites: carpooling, accommodation (eg couchsurfing).
Sites participatory project funding (crowdfunding).
- Social networking and bookmarking sites
Public social networks like Facebook, Twitter and Google Plus are already collaborative tools for sharing and keep information, exchange messages and documents, etc..
Community sites “bookmarking” as Delicious, Digg or healing of contents (Pearltrees, Scoop.it) are also part of this group because they allow users to interesting websites plebiscite (voting) or select and share relevant information.
- Collaborative encyclopedias
The most famous of which is Wikipedia, which features collaborative contributors. In the “high tech”, is a particularly potent commentcamarche.net collaborative space in the computer category.
Unlike the film industry, participatory video is a project created by the community to the community. It allows people tell stories in their own ways and also to know what it is like to be a producer, camera man, journalist or actor. Just like community radio, this project has emancipatory intentions, which aim for social change. It also reinforces social relations within the communities and promotes collective action. The video below shows different projects in different countries (Nigeria, Peru, Malawi, India, Rwanda, UK, Uganda, China, South Africa and Ghana). Each of them make a video calling for change.
Online activism multiplied the impact of social protest in Egypt: it made political action easier, faster and more universal. In the tightly controlled Egyptian political space, social media enabled activists to circumnavigate the regime’s repressive structures to convince Egyptians in the online world into taking action in the offline one. This was its main success, for a revolution will always be won and lost on the streets. The political uses of online platforms and technologies are extremely transferrable, and are just as clearly seen in the London riots as they were in Tahrir. The first use is as a tool for mobilising citizens by producing material designed to inspire them into action, and to organise their action once recruited. The second is to use online platforms as a medium for citizen journalism to report on the situation.
It was not Facebook, Twitter or YouTube that brought down Hosni Mubarak. The Egyptian people did that. But this does not mean that social media and internet-based technologies played no role, or that their role was insignificant, as some have alleged. Rather, events in Egypt and countries across the Middle East and North Africa have shown in the ‘Arab Spring’ that internet platforms and technologies should be seen for what they are: effective tools for the conduct of political campaigns in authoritarian contexts.
There is much discussion about the effect on local cultures of the increasingly globalized commercial media output with its well-tried and standard – if not banal – entertainment formats. But one thing is clear: they can never respond to the socio-economic and development needs of the countries they reach, let alone those of marginalized communities within those countries. Hence, globalized media and community media do not compete. The former provides irrelevant entertainment, while the latter deals with local issues in the local languages and cultural context, relating to local problems and concerns, and aiming to help the community develop socially, culturally and economically. The principal functions of community radio are:
To reﬂect and promote local identity, character and culture by focusing principally on local content. Culture is how the people of a community talk about their past and their cuture. It is what they care about. Like life itself, culture is inﬁnitely variable and constantly evolving. Community culture is also artistic expression through local music, dance, poetry, theatre and story telling. Local performers are encouraged to go on air uninhibited by considerations of the ‘professional standards’ they may have acquired from mainstream media. Culture is also language, so programming includes the languages of any minority groups in the community.
• To create a diversity of voices and opinions on the air through its openness to participation from all sectors. Some discord is present in all communities, but the acknowledgement of con-ﬂict is necessary for democracy and for democratic communities. Community radio tries to air objectively all sides of a discussion without itself taking sides.
To encourage open dialogue and democratic process by providing an independent platform for interactive discussion about matters and decisions of importance to the community. In essence, the core of democratic process is the ability of people to hear and make themselves heard.
To promote social change and development. In marginalized communities people all have their individual perceptions about their situation, but what is required for change and development is a collective perception of the local reality and of the options for improving it. This collective perception can only be achieved through internal discussions to analyse speciﬁc problems, identify possible solutions, and mobilize the appropriate people or groups for action. Community radio provides the perfect platform for this internal discussion.
• To promote good governance and civil society by playing a community watchdog role that makes local authorities and politicians more conscious of their public responsibilities. The marginalized and the oppressed normally have no way to complain when authorities take advantage of them, but community radio gives them a voice to air their grievances and obtain their due rights.
Some other functions of community radio include: sharing of information and innovation; giving a voice to the voiceless, especially to women and young people in some societies; and providing a social service as a replacement for the telephone.
Wikipedia is an internet-based encyclopedia that allowed people to create something, share their knowledge and more importantly participate in information sharing. The encyclopedia has become so large that you run across it all the time in Google. In Addition, Wikis in general are growing because they are as simple as can be. That simplicity means that people find them easy to use, just like emails and blogs. Like emails and blogs, Wikis also perform a very useful service in a simple way. A wiki allows a group of people to enter and communally edit bits of texts. These bits of text can be viewed and edited by anyone who visits the wiki. A great number of people around the world use this engine to make research and learn about new things. Its ease of access and reliability have made it more interesting for internet users to get information, and in only one click !
However, one question that may pop in people’s minds is; how accurate are the wikis?
Online revolutions are the accounts that currently we encounter in all over the globe such as U.SA. as Occupy Wall Street Movement or Arab Springs in the middle east or lastly Gezi Park Movement that we experienced in the İstanbul, Turkey. The common key point about this movement is that they mostly oriented within the existence of online interventions with usage of facebook, twitter or any form of alternative broadcasting that shows us brutal police violence against the resistant participant. Therefore, these revolutions or movement can be seen as online revolutions because of its spirit and conceptualization regarding to usage of free technology and social media practices.
It was truly emancipated individuals yet I will prefer to focus that how technology also controls us within these movements because in the modern period, surveillance mostly occurred within the existence of the technological possibilities so that it should be remembered that our connections to the internet was cancelled in the demonstration and it was quite difficult to access facebook or twitter because on one hand, servers were overloaded but also government attempted to control via internet with using their power. Also, access to youtube is still problematic in Turkey. There is different ‘illegal’ way to access but citizens not enabled to access youtube.
In this picture, I concern that to use social media organ as a revolutionary components or agents because our connection to it could easily affected and harsh surveillance practices can be occurred. For instance, number of individual arrested just because their twitter account was against the governmental power sources. Thus, it is quite important to realize that while we are mentioning about social media’s powerful practices, it should also be realized that it is highly weak in the sense that official institutional practices. Therefore, my suggestion is that to empower our official right to access internet, supporting of free, unrestricted internet should be added to our discourse in order to make revolutions more secure and effective.
“No one expected it. In a world darkened by economic distress, political cynicism, cultural emptiness and personal hopelessness, it just happened. Suddenly dictatorship could be overthrown with the bare hands of the people, even if their hands had been bloodied by the sacrifice of those fallen. Financial magicians went from being the objects of public envy to the targets of universal contempt. Politicians became exposed as corrupt liars. Governments were denounced. Media were suspected. Trust vanished…[….]” (Castells, 2012: 1).
In this case people need to create a new way to communicate each other for gathering to be a participant of social movements against to this situation. Mainstream media and government are no longer trustable. So that new ways are rising in order to communication, to reach and share information, to represent events surrounding the world. Communication needs to be as quick as possible. The technology is no longer just a helpful tool for talent sourcing specialist, but a vital part of networked social movements.
According to Castells “networked social movements of the digital age representing a new species”. For instance, networked social sites such as Twitter, Facebook and YouTube have a remarkable role to play: activists used them to highlight the initial round of protests, to distribute information, to represent events, to be participant of actions and so on. Additionally Blogs are very important to share experiences. To use social media for revolution, protest or struggle shows the life itself. Owing to increase using social media day by day people become powerful, independent, courageous and determined. Therefore it is a huge risk for government. Because basically it creates a more democratic sphere, and also it provides to reach information rapidly. So governments make provision in which banning to web sites and creating fear onto people.
There are many online revolutions around the world struggle for not only political issue but also economic, cultural, social issue and so on. For instance, ‘Movement of Freedom and Democracy’ in Morocco, Occupy Wall Street in U.S. for “income inequality and wealth distribution”, Arab Spring in Arab countries, Gezi Resistance in Turkey.
I want to give details about Arab Spring. Because the revolution has spread to other countries with a domino effect. Arab Spring Revolution was a series of protests and uprisings in the Middle East that began with unrest in Tunisia in late 2010. The Arab Spring has brought down regimes in some Arab countries. The protests included issues such as dictatorship or absolute monarchy, human rights violations, political corruption, economic decline, unemployment and extreme poverty. The Arab Spring began in Tunisia, but the decisive moment that changed the region forever was the downfall of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. The first mass protest in Egypt was announced on Facebook by an anonymous group of activists, who in a few days managed to attract tens of thousands of people. The social media proved a powerful mobilization tool that helped the activists to outwit the police. Then the Egyptian government attempted to eliminate the nation’s Internet access in order to inhibit the protesters. At the end of the struggle President Morsi was removed to power. In conclusion online revolution play a remarkable and vital role for democracy, human rights and so on.
Castells, M. (2012) Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age. London: Polity Press.