Digital Storytelling

Storytelling has always been a significant part of history, but the means through which the stories have been told has evolved with each civilization. From the oral histories presented by bards in ancient courts, to the works of scribes during the Renaissance, to newspapers, CNN, and now the Internet, personal narrative has been used to communicate the events of the past. Digital media now combines tradition with technology and allows people to tell stories through voice, text, images, audio, and video. This practice is now mostly used in schools.
Digital storytelling uses multimodal literacy concepts to create knowledge and enhance learning. The process of writing a story, molding it to a specific audience, fitting it within technical and assigned constraints, researching and collecting supporting assets, and crafting it all together requires considering the topic from a number of angles, and promotes a deeper understanding of it.
The link below is a video that tells the story of World War II in 7 minutes:

Hacking: a trend

Hacking is a computer practice that enables the hacker to penetrate a network, a website, a computer, a phone or else, for various purposes. Hacking may also be referred to as computer crime or cybercrime. Examples can be: Fraud, drugt rafficking, cyber terrorism, harrassment, threats…
Chinese hackers are upping the ante in terms of the number of attacks targeted at mobile users; there’s been a worrying increase in malware that is successfully penetrating online banking apps used on Android phones and researchers have developed a virus that infects Wi-Fi points and spreads like the common cold.

Hackers based in China have always been a prolific bunch and in the past have been accused of penetrating a wide range of commercial and military networks lifting everything from blueprints for helicopter designs to industrial control system architecture. But this is part of the hidden cyber war that many countries continuously engage in and we only become aware of when the lid blows of some particular attack such as Stuxnet.

However, the latest revelations merely confirm our suspicions, based on hard evidence, anecdotes and predictable trends, that mobile computing is becoming a big fat target. Malware kits for hacking mobile devices, that is smart phones, are available on the deep web for just short of £10. And its Android phones that are the primary target.

Participatory journalism

Participatory journalism is considered as alternative journalism. In the production of information, journalists use blogs to provide news that are misrepresented or because they do not have access or right to participate. They provide commentary opinion from an oppositional perspective and promote a diversified media space, where the most neglected topics can find a place there. Therefore, “citizens become informed not by consuming information, but by interacting with others around information. It is the process of mutually influencing one another – interaction – that creates the condition of being informed”.(Ryfe & Mensing) This means that the main idea here is to enhance interaction in generating information, which puts the consumers in the position of producers.
Blogs can be a good example, however, they have a few flaws. For instance, they can provide subjective or biased reflections of news, reflections which lack truthfulness, professionalism, accuracy and fairness.

Participatory Journalism

Consumers increase their participation in the new media, they share those content that best suit their satisfaction user experience.

The economic models of content companies become unprofitable while Internet becomes a large window of possibilities in the context of new economy. Why if many sectors of consumption are changing, journalism should be different?

Participatory journalism “is an act of a group of citizens, playing an active role in the process of collecting, creating, analyzing and disseminating news in order to provide independent, reliable, accurate, comprehensive and relevant information that a democracy requires.”

If so, there are still many uncertainties, such as whether the user can participate in all stages of the process of the news or just the selection of topics and data collection, and even know what has to be the real contribution of citizens in building today.

The participatory journalism should have:

Collective Intelligence: Beyond the competition between media and among journalists and citizens. Participation should be the factor to evolve from “the Information Society to the Society of Conversation.”

Share information: Power is not anymore in the new but in how we share it.

Quality: Participation should be safe for most contrasting information and improving the content. It cannot be an excuse to skip responsibility for possible errors.

Against job insecurity: Thinning of the essay is not an excuse to throw towards participatory journalism. Without professional and communicative means no consistency. No reporters no involvement with consistency. Readers cannot become the new journalists. Journalism develops and drags reporters and readers to new moors together.

Storytellin

Storytelling is a narrative form designed for children as audience and became a key marketing tool in the nineties in the United States. The technique refers to the use of stories to generate emotions, able to emotionally connect the company and its brands with their target audience.

Throughout the years, stories and narratives have been present in humanity as a way to transmit information from generation to generation and also as a way of recording events and cultural changes.

Stories have always accompanied mankind. Stories about wars, discoveries, conquests or inventions have been present in the life of humans. Marketing, advertising and communications have taken note of it to reinvent themselves.

Storytelling is the professional tool to “capture” the attention of people and connect them emotionally with brand associations. This strategy applied to qualities and benefits of the products they want to sell.

Stories have a number of elements that converge: a plot, characters, a setting, an outcome and narrative point of view. Leonardo Aguirre contends that under this idea, the Storytelling is currently defined as a narrative based communication technique to tell histories in order to generate emotions, taking into account that people can remember stories better than other information.

Companies tell stories about their products, services or persons, in order to capture the attention of the stakeholders, especially customers, fostering emotional bond with the brand that tells the story.

The combination of brand awareness with consumers’ positive associations impacts sales positively.

In that way the traditional media start to use the alternative media to communicate. Like the storytelling other alternative methods of communicate can become common tools of communication.

New Technology and Piracy

Piracy, as it is known, began with the origins of navigation and was practiced by all the seas of the globe, and still practiced in some, could not leave out of its scope to one of the seas they navigate one of the largest commercial traffic today: Internet.

The pirate’s practices were increasing while the technology was developing. Disarm security systems to outside computer or computers outside address and plunder have become the new offenses that these buccaneers have established in recent years. But, however, hackers (who are generally well known) appeared as a positive tool. Recall that the Internet was created by the government of the United States in the sixties and exclusively for military use. Then, to improve systems security, hires computer wizards to seek gaps in those systems, in order to improve it. Then those pirates made these new tools something that all the citizens can use.

Nowadays we use internet almost for everything. Is a way of communicate and express our ideas. Internet is a tool where knowledge can be share with the other users of internet also documents but when this things are on internet we lose the property of it and everybody can take it and use it.

But is that information that we share piracy if another person uses it or is just when you don’t want it to use it. Is internet a place where we can share our knowledge without care who can use it.

The only thing that is clear for me is that this should be more regulated. Internet can be a way of share or inform but when this is done when you don’t want it for me it becomes in a way of piracy.

Graffiti, a Way of Comminicate

The media have had a huge impact on the practice of street art and the historical development of it. The graffiti culture is built around a multitude of rules that determine how the sprayer has to get his tools, choose their supports, and shape the letters when writing.

The graffiti is an educational way of communication and expression by drawing symbols, icons, characters, letters and signs.

Is important to say that the world of graffiti has been influenced by the participation of young people, as they have managed to develop their own techniques for artistic creative production, using elements that have become a phenomenon, to some commercial spot, giving it a sense different from what we understand as art.

Culture is the symbolic dimension of the social that is embodied in a number of different supports: objects, actions, situations, actors, knowledge, discourses, from which you configure and order the social world (Gonzalez 1994). Also cultural graffiti manifestations are art world.

This movement is developing by alternative media, publishing their work in a network that they create. It is the invasion of a plastic culture with spontaneous invented roots, like fashions, musical styles, alternative social worlds, complicated tools that facilitate human life, etc.., Technology is the channel through which it has spread throughout the world, this can be corroborated with the same mass media such as the telephone, television, and especially the Internet, which are the most important. The internet is the “new meter” of graffiti,  is the support carrying the works from one end to another scene, and not limited to a city, but spread throughout the world.

Between the alternative way of communicate there us the graffiti, as registration or drawing made on any surface in public places, the purpose is to attract the attention of people. The sprayers are groups that transform walls into spaces for community expression, developing and characterizing their identity.

Awakening of true revolutionary spirit by online revolutions

The political history can be defined the history of total war across the globe that position itself the friends and enemy distinction and this characteristic always reproduced by the political thinkers that have problematic approaches to politics with their pessimistic sense. Therefore, in particular, in the contemporary world the pessimistic spirit walks around us both implicitly and explicitly as such an inheritance of these pessimistic political thinkers. However, without a shadow of doubt, today the necessary thing is not pessimistic spirit, on the contrary the revolutionary spirit that can provide salvation and emancipation from that pessimism that causes to forget our capacity in order to reach the true meaning of revolution and democracy.

Thus, does true revolutionary spirit hide itself behind the possibility of ‘online revolution’. At this juncture, new technologies have crucial contributions in order to discover this true revolutionary spirit in terms of ensuring democratic practices and productivity directly.  Therefore, with reference to motto of ‘revolution will be twitted’, social movements as third wave that return to politics of social issues by differentiated agent such as educated unemployment people, students and so on rather than practiced by only working class as old social movements implemented that within the scope of economic struggle, class and distribution. Above all, the significant role of the social media by comparison to the role of traditional media in old social movements, is the most influential characteristic of these movements especially in the sense of organizing and regulating people collectively. In relation to that, the traditional binaries between the interpersonal communication and mediated communication become blurred in new social movements by networked technologies and the usage of new media. Since, the new media started to set institutional structure themselves through creating online interaction, so the political, social movements are articulated themselves in structural way as online way and also in terms of action.

In terms of the relationship between activists and political movements, their action becomes to have different objection rather than past movements. In general, primarily there was the rise of Zapatista resistance with demand of global justice, likewise new politics aimed at benefiting from global justice with its self-organizing character and various political identities. Their protests manifests itself through the help of internet rather than traditional media and it is possible to say that these first anti-globalized movements can be defined as the  framework of first democratic experience that conducted by alternative media practices. As most importantly, internet as new technology not only used for the distribution, but also used for participating directly in order to protest through creating solidarity. Also internet ensures to organize activists in online way by mobilizing and organizing them by showing to them how to move and protest with its transnational and national dimension in general. Therefore, the relationship between new media and activism, in other words social media and contemporary protests provide umbrella for different social groups by emphasizing their social and political participations. In brief, it constitutes itself through participation, plurality and freedom as such an instructive to discover true revolutionary spirit.

Eros effect also on Gezi Resistance

If Gezi Resistance is evaluated under main approaches to the interaction between the new media and activism, it can classified in terms of the conceptualization of Gerbaudo ‘choreography of assembly’ due to emphasize on the performance and in particular the construction of public space through collective spirit. Also, in the sense of one of the parameters that emphasized by this approach, absence of leadership is important. Throughout the Gezi Resistance, there was no rise of the sense of leadership not only as individual hero but also the domination of one group that converts the movement to kind of despotism. Yet, it is impossible to ignore the emancipatory potential and contribution of new media and social media that manifests itself through twitter and facebook on this resistance, it is necessary to scrutinize the impacts and interaction of traditional media. Since the emancipatory potential of new media generates itself by the repressive role of traditional media, it means that the dialectical relationship between them creates possibility of emancipation actually. At this point, along Gezi Resistance, while the liberated potential of social media, traditional media manifests itself as an obstacle with its repressive role against its potential to discovery true revolutionary spirit. In regarding to context of Gezi Resistance, traditional media oppression manifests itself as a kind of political oppression, because the role of mainstream media is a kind of monopoly of state oppression or one of the ideological state apparatus as Althusser conceptualized that in Turkey. Once again, based on the dialectical relationship, this oppression gives chance to the usage of social media as public sphere for mobilization collectively for the resistance as performance. Consequently, it is possible to say that likewise ‘Eros effect’ on European social, political movements in contemporary times, in Turkey this ‘Eros effect’ shows itself through social media with its survival, emancipatory, especially true revolutionary spirits  characteristic by providing collectively organization and participation. In particular, quite the contrary of Thanatos effect which is conceptualized in Freudian sense as the death instinct that represented by the traditional media in Turkey.  In short, revolutionary spirit starts to discover its lost treasure thanks to interaction between the resistance and new media, even as still-continuing discovery.

The Vicious Circle (Week 13)

The fundamental use of social media for civil obedience is undeniably effective. People who have an access to internet or have any kind of mobile phone can visit these kinds of websites (Facebook, Twitter, etc.) and receive information about any protest that is happening near his/her area. With the personal messaging system, people can connect to others privately about a protest. For example, in Gezi Park protests, social media has been widely used by the protesters to organize with each other. That is the reason why the social media has been seen as a problem by the government.

Although the online organization is important for a bigger scale of a protest in order to make revolution, it is surely not enough. People also need to act on the fields rather than just sitting at their computers and tweet. The only effective use of social media is to be organized in these times. Of course it would be absurd to claim that all of these were in vain. These attempts surely made some changes in the people’s minds. We can see this with the increasing participation of apolitical youth of Turkey to the protests during Gezi Park. The news sharing process by the protesters and activists about these events while there were no accurate information in the mass media surely showed how people care to inform other people about the realities that are not shown.

However the effective these protests and organization by social media, they will never be enough in making a revolution on a either national or global scale. Because of the capitalist vicious circle, that always needs people to buy the products that are claimed to be really needed by the consumers, people are always paralyzed to buy from these products of imperialists. The very imperialists that are protested in these kinds of protests are not only yielded but also gain more advertisement. In order to put a stop to the vicious circle of this system, people need to make compromises of themselves. A global movement that is organized with the use of social media surely would put a stop to this kind of unconscious consumerism. People need to promote anti-capitalist trade systems like barter system that was used pre-monetary societies.

In order to make a revolution, the forces of imperialism should be prevented. For now there is not much example for an alternative way of bartering. The only valid example I can give to this system is the website freecycle.org which has a motto “changing the world one gift at a time” on its main page. There are local groups for each area that are involved in this website with the help of Yahoo groups. When someone has a need for any item/product, s/he can open a topic in these groups or vice versa. Seemingly, this system works well for Turkey example. However, the more people should know about this system so it can work better and/or more of these kinds of websites can come up. In conclusion, even if this approach may seem pessimistic, the protests are not enough for a revolution; in order to achieve it people from every corner of the world should reject capitalist system and promote more humanist approaches. If we do not break this vicious cycle, every problem of our society will continue to happen repeatedly in our future.

Sources:

https://www.freecycle.org/

For Istanbul example of freecycle group:

https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/freecycleistanbul/info

Community Radio

The participation of the audience in the radio has its origins almost at the beginning of the radios when the audience starts to send letter to the programs. But it becomes more relevant when the telephone becomes popular on the 60’s. Since then the participatory of the audience in the radio is increasing, especially with the new technology.

The new technology gives the audience the opportunity to take part of the radios in many ways, but are they really doing it?

The radios still having the call and the emails section where the audience can get in contact and give their opinion but also the new media makes the communication and the participatory easy for the public who wants to take part of any radio program.

Those sections were the audience is taking part of the programs is becoming every day more relevant. The radio programs can have different topics and different structure but almost all of them has a section were the public can participate on it.

Some of the radio gives really importance to this and this makes the audience takes part of the radio and feel it in a different way. There is no someone talking or putting music is a community where the opinion of the public is relevant.

Definitely the audience is participating every day more in this media in many different ways and more radios are starting to be not just that also community radios.