In an era where the internet is perceived as the hero of a lifetime, the radio manages to survive, keep its balance and get closer to the populace. Wikipedia defines Community radio as a radio that serves communities and especially communities of interest. They broadcast content that is relevant and of interest to the target community. Modern community radio stations serve their listeners by offering a variety of content that is not necessarily provided by the larger commercial radio stations. Community radio outlets may carry news and information programming geared toward the local area (particularly immigrant or minority groups who are poorly served by major media outlets). In the U.S, there are ethnic oriented stations, given the fact that it is an increasingly diverse country that counts people from various races and ethnicities. The Latinos or the Afro-Americans in the U.S have their own radio stations, in which they manage to reflect social and political concerns, as well as diffuse things of the community’s common interest, such as music, sports and entertainment programs. These stations share a common feature: they are free in the sense that they are different from the mainstream ones, which mainly focus on public debates and general topics. Community radios are also close to their audiences, because they use one common language, which helps them unit, represent their culture and form a community. Another example can be the community radio station in Guatemala. ‘Owned and run by the community, Indigenous community stations are uniquely qualified to choose content representing their interests and cultural norms. Community radio stations strengthen social and economic ties by involving local leaders and community organizations to speak on radio programs. The opportunity to speak Mayan languages over the radio while discussing Mayan issues reinforces pride and interest among the community in maintaining their culture in the face of strong assimilationist pressures. However, depending on its particular situation and history, each station has unique strengths and weaknesses. For example, the ‘Xobil Yol’ station has an effective board of directors, but difficulty with youth participation. Each independent and autonomous community radio station has something to teach and something to learn from other stations. This is where Cultural Survival comes in’. ‘Nonprofit community radio plays a critical role in the daily lives of hundreds of thousands of Indigenous people in Guatemala. Francisco Xico, a Mayan priest who volunteers at his local community radio station says, “The radio helps keep our culture and language alive.” As Cultural Survival staffer Ancelmo Xunic says, “It is by the community, for the community.” Community radio volunteer Angelica Cubur Sul says, “As an Indigenous women, I can say that the community radio is the only place that I can express my views and opinions and be sure that they will be heard by the entire town. The Mayor expresses his opinion on our radio, so do the police, and so do I.” (http://www.culturalsurvival.org/grp)
Some argue that advertising is a type of art. On the other hand, there are many people state that, advertising should be considered as a scientific way of persuasion. However, in my opinion, advertising is a combination of both artistic and scientific components which are combined to persuade people or give information. Furthermore, I see advertisements as a type of alternative media. The reason for this, people can be informed about events by advertisements. Especially those events, which cannot find place for themselves in mainstream channels, for being contradictory to interests of media owners or stakeholders of different companies. In other words, in advertisments there are not only images that aim to persuade people to consume a particular product.
Images can be used to persuade you to stop obeying the status quo, to change your mind for a specific attitude or just make you act for a change. It is easy to draw attention and impress people for advertisements since they are artistic and shocking. Therefore, advertisement is a very effective way of communication to change an attitude, inform people or give information. Below there are some examples for my statements.
TURKISH FILMS AND TURKISH TELEVISIONS
I begin my writing with films. Actually, films which carry away us to different world some of them real but some of them are fancy and they are categorized in terms of issues like drama,comedy, war, we don’t only watch, we see that and have an idea about cultures, customs, traditions peoples, cities, which hold a place in the world and we have chance to make sense about these issues. Firstly, I take hand Turkish films which means that how they hold a place within Turkish people life and then I give way to how Turkih televisions enter to our lifes and give some examples about first broadcasatings.
First film screening was shown at Palace during 1896 during II. Abdülhamit by Bertrand. First years of Turkish films were foreign movies. In 1914, ‘Ayastefanos’ taki Rus Abidesinin Yıkılışı’ which was accepted as first Turkish documentary film and which was shooted by Fuat Uzkınay. This film takes place in this link in a shortly ( http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3JwchoxBawY ) Especially, until republican period, films’ content about First World War. In this sector, Muhsin Ertuğrul acceded film company at 1922 and who was crucial person up to 1950. He shooted more than 30 films. Some of his films were called Ateşten Gömlek (1923), its content was about Turkish War of Independence. First sound film was İstanbul Sokakları (1931) and Bir Millet Uyanıyor ( 1932). After 1950s, it was started to shape Turkish cinema language slowly. In 1952, ‘Kanun Namına’ was turning point of Turkish film in terms of its recital method, its player, location which film. In 1960s, film was effected negatively because television entered to our lifes . While cinema penetrated social and economic issues in 1970s, and in 1980s, cinema took hand issues about women and psychological films. After then in 1990s, number of Turkish films were reduce but they were well qualified films. (I summarize these informations and took them from this page : http://www.uzmanportal.com/turkiyede-sinema-film-filim-nin-tarihi-tarihcesi-kisaca-ozeti-gelisimi.html/ ) On the other hand, I want to hold a place that first Turkish film which was broadcasted by TRT in 17 th November of 1968. Its content was suspenser- psychological film. There was a girl who was so jealous, so aggressive and her attitude to other people were so rude. This character was picked by Alev ORALOĞLU. This film takes a place in this link. (First Turkish Film in TRT http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sQWK7W7ct8Y )
Actually, as I evaluate Turkish film according to these informations, there was deficiencies because Turkey which followed developments in this sector from behind of the West. It was shaped by foreign films because it was effected in terms of its technology, its methods, its contents. What I mean is that Turkish cinema didn’t shape itself, it was enriched by other countries but if we look at today, especially with effects of education, with improvement of tehcnology in terms of visuality, technical equipments, Turkish cinema progresses. In addition to this, there are many successful film directors, many players who develop themselves and produces good qualified films and they not only show their films in local area but also embody Turkey in global area, in some contests or some film festivals. I give some known director and their films which represent Turkish cinema in all over the world. Nuri Bilge Ceylan (Uzak,2003 / Gegen Die Wand,2004), Fatih Akın, Ferzan Özpetek, Abdullah Oğuz (Mutluluk,2007)
Secondly, I take hand television and give short information about history of Turkish television. Undoubtedly, everybody have television in their home. It addresses to people in different way because its function change. What I mean is that , in the old days, there were news and people followed news thorough Tv but if we compare role of television from past to today , we will see that it has many functions. For example, while we watch news at one channel, on the other hand, we watch football matches, tv series, talk shows, etc etc. Actually, today we have an idea about what is going on in our country and in the world.
If I look at history of Turkish television, it would started at Istanbul Technical University at 1952 as laboratory work and it was accepted at starting point of television in Turkey. Broadcasting contents were theatre, Western classical music, concer of folk music, health, child, cultural programs but it terminated its broadcastings and attorned its technical equipments to TRT at 1968. At that time, television was seen as education and cultural vehicle by program publishers. I want to take a place a link which shows that first broadcasting of TRT in 31 January of 1968 which was test broadcasting from Ankara. (First Broadcasting of TRT : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RX6rS9t-YuY) but the condition of TRT was changed because with 1990s, there were started to emerge private television and because of this reason TRT fell in step with its rivals and established alternative channels like TRT 2 (culture-art), TRT 3 (spor channel), TRT GAP( addresses to East and Southeast area of Turkey), TRT INT (addresses to Turkish people who live in foreign country) so TRT which was the most important channel in history Turkish television because Turkish people who had chance to watch , took information, had an idea about many things thorough TRT.
On the other hand, first private television started with Star. (This is the advertisment of Star Tv before it broadcasted http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ox9N1XwWYxk ) After then, Show Tv, Kanal 6, Atv, HBB, TGRT, Samanyolu, Kanal D, Kanal 7 and Flash TV which were other Turkish private channels then Star. I give link which showed advertising of Star Tv. There were two speakers who gave information about program formats in terms of contest programmes, football programs etc. They tried to higlight that Star Tv which contributes lots of things to life of Turkish people. ( I took these informations from publication of Ministry of Education about History of Turkish Radio and Television Pages between 36-41 : http://megep.meb.gov.tr/mte_program_modul/modul_pdf/321GM0025.pdf )
So if I evaluate Turkish television behalf of alternativeness, it was so problematic situation because there was only one Turkish channel and which was managed under many rules and Turkish people didn’t have alternative chance to look another. If private televisions came to our life earlier, point of Turkish people would be so wide because regulations also had an crucial role on them and these cause to prevent themselves to broadcast something in a freely way and cause that people didn’t express their lifes, talk about politics, talk about economics in a freely way. Actually, there was so compulsion on Turkish television. Today, the condition was changed because number of television increases day by day, their program formats are developed and enlarged and addresses to every people whoever has different life style one another. In addition to this, In Turkey, at the beginning of Turkish television, we won’t talk about independence but today I think that there was return of repressed because people who have chance to more in debate programs, or talk shows even it is limited but the point which Turkish television comes to today condition is so progressive and not easy.
In conclusion, I talk about Turkish cinema and Turkish televisions. Undoubtedly, at the beginning, Turkey was backward and didn’t have available condition in terms of technical, economic, political condition, and the only thing which it did is that follow other development countries and tried to do same thing with them because of this reason Turkey didn’t do original works and today conditions are changed because in Turkey, there are lots of channels, lots of films which do different works, produce many things, reaches many people in terms of penetrating dissimilar content program formats behalf of TV again imitate to attract Turkish people attention but I think that milestone in history of Turkish television and also effect on film is that emergence of private television. If it didn’t, today we will be closed not only each other but also other countries, people , culture in all over the world because its place in our life is undeniable. We travel with them to many place with channel surf and witnesses many things.
Underground press is a kind of press where one can represent their views, which are generally not accepted, in opposition to established ideas, rules and systems; such as magazines. “Nichane” – meaning straightforward in the Moroccan dialect – is or let’s say was a weekly moroccan magazine that used jokes to criticize the system, putting emphasis on taboos, political and social scandals, etc. The magazine has been censored in 2010, due to the use of offensive words towards the Moroccan King. However, Nichane had managed to come closer to the Moroccan readers and put all the barriers aside, using daily life language to uncover the reality of the society and be open about it; which the mainstream media fail to do. Despite of the language it used, I myself was a fan of this magazine, because it was the most concrete and realest thing to read and still believe. As I mentioned in a previous comment on alternative media, the latter are now considered as a threat to the mainstream ones and a weapon that kills every opportunity of being surreal, this is why the magazine has been officially censored from the public, but however, left its mark on the internet and on social networks, under www.nichane.com
Film, video and especially a television have been for the past fifty years in the developed countries and the last thirty to forty years in an undeveloped countries a very important medium for the news broadcasting and entertainment People get informed about the political, economic and environmental events via the television and news channels provided. Who is responsible for the selection of the news and also for the interpretation and the comments that accompany the news? How “objective” and “democratic” can be news that are broadcasted by the news channels belonging to the same cooperation and distribution companies and would like to continue to have a monopoly on world’s news?
A very interesting video got my attention just recently. In the video, Hilary Clinton, the U.S secretary of State is declaring that American television media and channels such as CNN and British BBC are under the “treat” and officially in the information war with the foreign media. The ones treating these Western mainstream media; who for a while, had a monopoly for a short period in the world broadcasting world news, is an alternative media coming from the ‘enemy” countries such as Russia, China, Iran and Venezuela. These countries have established an international channels in different language, such as English, Spanish, Russian.. where they address same questions, events etc. with their own commentaries, that many times clash with the commentaries provided by the American and British news broadcasting giants.
Russia became worldwide known with its RT – Russia Today, which is registered as autonomous non-profit organization. China’s CCTV (China Central television), broadcasting from Peking, has a network of 22 channels broadcasting different programs, such as news, documentary, entertainment. Similarly, Al Jazeera which is owned privately by Al Jazeera Media Network stated in Doha, Qatar.
In the name of USA broadcasting network news, Hilary Clinton supported by the American broadcasting cooperations, perceives that having an alternative views broadcasting by a foreign media on the news and especially on the USA political moves and actions, as a war. Therefore America is in a way a “good guy” here and the foreign media is “an enemy”. Clinton goes with her definitions on the subject saying that Al Jazeera is winning; Russian’s open multilingual channel broadcasting, as did the Chinese. Apparently according to Hilary other influential countries are not supposed to be having an opinion on world’s events, opposing and criticizing the USA government and various events connected to it. She speaks in such a way as if having a foreign media broadcasting in English would almost be a crime, not to mention a great threat to one-view oriented America and Britain.
As a result, CNN and BBC are making cuts, they are losing the public drastically, more and more people are hungry and searching for an alternative media outside these big news broadcasting companies that are no longer satisfying the general publish who started questioning single-minded one-view perspective on the world’s news. On the other hand, channels such as RT, Al Jazeera and CCTV are gaining more and more audience each day. RT has 550 million viewers in more than 100 countries, CCTV has an astonishing billion viewers.
Furthermore, what is interesting in the video with a Hilary Clinton, is the hostility she shows towards these non-American broadcasting channels, she goes as far as to call them “the enemies”, and sees the situation as the “We are in the information war and we are losing the war.” So apparently, having a different opinion or giving a different comment to a situation being broadcasted on let’s say CNN, makes you an enemy, which I perceive as a strongly negative word, enemy is someone who wants to do you bad, harm you and your family and makes you in generally feel frightened. That diminishes the respect and credibility of the whole ideology as America being the role model of a democratic country in the world and even going as far as to “spread and fight for democracy in other countries.”
Can these foreign channels be classified as a radical alternative media towards the mainstream media? In a way, these channels are a mainstream media in their own countries, and truth to be told, they probably won’t stand the test of the Barber’s analytic categories such as agenda setting, exploring mutuality and affiliation and affection, witness and self-expression and community building. However, i am trying to show here that mainstream media all over the world, especially American and British one, may perceive others as a threat, and if they can’t stand difference of an opinion and criticize it so boldly, then this proves that alternative views are indeed necessary, otherwise why would American broadcasting made such a fuss?
Taking USA back in time when the media was still forming in the America. In American constitution is it written in a more freeway manner, that the media should be a “watchdog”, as to follow state’s flaws, mistakes, all and all criticize the government, follow and openly show the corruption in order to build a better and more democratic country. But is that really the case in the USA? The so called “freedom of speech” becomes questionable here, if we take Clinton’s words regarding the foreign TV channels, having a different opinion is not only bad is in fact a form of evil (hence the conclusion” our enemies”), America feels that they are out-communicated by their “enemies”, and therefore they have to defend their country, their interests. I would love to hear the further explanation of the USA Head of Agency for foreign Broadcasting who in fact uses the term “enemies” regarding the foreign media, what exactly does it mean to be out-communicated? No one stops the CNN, FOX TV, BBC etc. to broadcast their news, it just that different views of points are available through different foreign channels and in a more accessible and easy to reach ways, such as internet, you tube etc.
Voices of other people from all over the world should and must be heard or at least they should have a chance to speak up and share their own experiences. One point of view of one country alone and one government cannot speak for the entire world; and if anything tolerance and respect should be practiced in worldwide broadcasting media news, to build a better tomorrow. As Martin Luther King put it:” Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred.”
Radio can be considered as one of the most powerful and easiest way of alternative media, because make a radio station is something “easy” to do,you don´t need a big area to do it, and it is easy to hide in the case that is forbidden to communicate the information that you want to broadcast, on the other way, we can find a radio player almost everywhere in the world, so this information is going to arrive to all the levels of the population.
In the article that i have read, they say that the community radio is the perfect alternative media to develop the rural areas, and that it has been using during the years in most part of South America.
There are two nongovernmental associations called (AMARC) and (ALER) that are taking care of the democratization of the media, trying to make legal all the community radios, and fighting for the free expression, even during the dictators. The other purpose of this associations is literates people in rural areas.
Barber puts forward a set of concepts which describe the various functions of democratic “talk” and which provide a theoretical framework for understanding some of the ways in which access television functions as a political communication resource.(Stein, 1998)With the help of these functions, we will examine a case of “Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others) effectively and focus on democratic functions of alternative media.
-Agenda Setting; “Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others) is following an approach that encourage citizen participation in agenda-setting.”Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others) startted as an alternative media during the hunger strikes in prisons in Turkey. Since the beginning of strikes the mainstream media did not function effectively and inform the public even there were hundreds of strikers. The founders of “Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others) explain the beginning of the process by outlining the question; “Why do we need the mainstream media?”
-Exploring Mutuality and Affiliation and Affection; “Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others) helps people to involve in political communcation and express their feeling, in their words about the issues concerns them.They do not consider themselves as news portal but also social responsible platform that involves in social projects. “Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others) aims to be the voice of “the Others”, which became others by the system, and by doing that creating awareness in the society.
-Maintaining Autonomy; By letting people to re-evaluate their opinions and values “Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others) guides individuals to reproduce a certain autonomy. Volunteer citizen journalists share videos and pictures that they shoot and expose their ideas about current issues.
-Witness and Self-expression; “Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others) allows diverse groups to represent themselves on their own.Ötekilerin Postası charactarizes itself as a fisherman in Trabzon,a transgender in İzmir, Kürt in Haymana, Armenian in İstanbul, Miner in Zonguldak, Alevi in Dersim, Suryani in Mardin, a teacher who waits for assignment in Bilecik, thousands of disabled people ve thousands of students who demostrates in streets.
-Reformulation and Reconceptualisation;Reformulation and Reconceptualisation of political and social terms and values is part of participatory democratic functions. “Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others) focuses on especially fascist and racist discourses. It’s major topics are; gender, human rights, youth,labour,conscientious objection and etc.
-Community-building; “Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others) promote active citizenship by encouraging individuals to be volunteer journalists.It startted as “Hunder Strike Post” in the 40th day of the strike by volunteer 2 activists independently from the main-stream media. By sharing the strike process with the audience transparently, “Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others) increased the number of its followers day by day. ( https://www.facebook.com/OtekilerinPostasi ) It’s motto is ; we make a hole on censorship with citizen journalism.
As we outlined the framework of the “Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others), it is important to ask what made them ask the question of “Why following just main-stream media?”.
Stein, L. (1998) “Democratic “Talk, Access Television and Participatory Political Communication” , in Swiss Journal of Sociology, vol. 5,pp.21-34