The relation between Globalization and Simulation

Economy,transportation,industry,technology and these kind of things are integrated with each other without any boundary with the globalization. According to Appadurai; Globalization is brought away the concept of time and space.

It did it wih the helping of technology. In the past, people didn’t manage to reach the knowledge very easily for example; people didn’t find lots of sources about some subjects or they didn’t see the photographs or videos about the different events from the all over the world. Without doubt they  heard or saw these kind of things from the televison or radio or newspapers but the internet is moved these situation in a very different area which name is simulation. All the action films and all the computer games can be given as an example of the simulation. When we watched or played these kind of films or games, we are fascinated and all of the things which we watched are came us so real and we are surprised. This situation is also occurred in the real life. There are lots of events happen in the world like wars, conflicts, starvations and these kinds of events. With the helping of technology,we watched them instantly in our houses like a simulation, they are so close but at the same time they are so far away for us. Globalization is presented us a new world.

New Media

New Media Technologies and Alternative Media are very important for creating more democratic public sphere. Firstly we can start with New Media Technology. Internet is one of the example for the new media technologies. A few years ago there was an event in China. The Chinese’s attacked the Uighur`s. These attacks continued a long time and it was showed by the television but after a while, the television started to didn`t broadcast these attack because of the Chinese state. They stopped the broadcast. From that time the local peoples in China started to take photos and take videos about this attack. And they published them to the all over the world by using web sites like Twitter. Chinese state tried to show that these attacks are finished but people`s all over the world take the truth information with the helping of videos and photos from the Twitter. All of these are the results of the internet.But also this event is available for the Alternative media.Twitter also can be given as an example for the Alternative media. Because Twitter is a website like a blog. People write their opinions and their critics about everything. And in this event, twitter is functioned as citizen journalism by publishing these videos and photos.

Citizen Journalism means  to give informations over the internet and social network connections about the important social events. These informations are given by the citizens.


The concept of modernization is western-centered has been criticized many times especially by the structuralist-functionalist theorists. That the listing is done from top to down after the West is taken as the centre creates some differences between the countries. It is argued that these differences stem from cultural laggings between the countries and that when these are minimized the countries labeled as underdeveloped or undeveloped will develop. The theory of modernization is positioned above the inner social processes. On the other hand, its effect on the third world societies is ignored.

Thus, the courses which exceed the national borders in the last twenty years, which happen within the economic and social processes, can be named as globalization. And this is related with the neo-liberalization. Moreover, within the definition of globalization which emerged in the process of neo-liberalism, it is argued that there is strong tie between this concept and international media. Using of mass media while the center tries to create its pressure is associated with the modernization, and the use of international media is associated with the globalization.

Cultural globalization may be regarded as the basic element of the globalization in the movie. According to the Water;
The symbols which can free the relations in extensive reference guides, and which can be carried easily, and more importantly which are globally seen as tools to meet the human needs take place above the physical formations with this feature. In this way, ‘the material changes become local, the political ones become international, and the symbolic ones become global.’ And this is an indicator of the fact that the globalization of human society depends on how effectively the cultural regulations happen compared to the economic and political ones. ┬
WATERS, M. (1995). Globalization. London: Routledge.
Hannerz also emphasized that;
the importance of the culture when it is thought with the globalization. According to him, the idea of culture has become more important compared to the past by including the differences of a series of ideas and expressions organized more or less, and the most important tools within this process are the common flow opportunities the technology of media has provided. ┬`HANNERZ, U. (1996). Transnational Connections: Culture, People, Places.
London: Routledge.`

Cultural Imperialism

I would like to share the link below as I reckon it is relevant t o week 12’s topic of discussion: Cultural Imperialism.

In the form of a mini-documentary, this 9:04 length video starting with funny but also protest song is a good example of what the contemporary situation is.

The overall idea is that in this world the wealth is unevenşy distributed, how big would your piece be?

13.12.2011 ‘Uniqueness’

In Turkey, there is a TV serial named as’ Umutsuz Ev Kadınları’. It’s adapted from ‘Desperate Housewives’. There are various TV serials that are adapted from European countries. We can mention that there is cultural imperialism in the world in many ways like lifestyle, dressing style, the way of speech etc.
Because of the globalization the world goes directly to one way. We resemble each other and the differences between cultures decreases every day. In ‘Desperate Housewives’ we watch different women who have different lifestyles. In Europe, there are some cultural elements. For example, women can live with their boyfriends at the same house without marrying. In contrast in Turkey it’s not possible to live like European people. There are some traditions and everyone have to obey these rules. In cultural imperialism, the system obliges to behave us in the same way. In capitalist system, we have to wear like others, we have to go Starbucks to drink coffee or we have to eat in ‘Burger King’. If not, we start to alienate to world. The system rejects us. The loneliness and the other psychological problems occurs besides the economic, and political problems.

06.12.2011 Conflict of Traditional & Modern

After World War 2, people tried to use media in a positive way. The societies began to change. The media has an important role in this formation. We can see that under-developed countries began to move on as “developed’ country and developed countries started to compete each other to become more powerful.

The change is not a same change for all countries. There is not a universal model for development. Each society develops its own strategy. While these changes occur, the modernity and the traditional tools try to be together. But we can say that at this point sometimes modernity has become dominant and traditional tools had to be assimilated.

Moreover, media offers some vertical and horizontal spaces. Because of the economic resasons, horizontal system offers various alternatives. For example we can see various factories in the same sector.
In vertical system, if you produce something cheaper than others you can discover different strategies. For example if you need cheap paper you can do various things; you can deal with a printing office etc.

Thanks to the modernity, we can see the changes step by step. When we think about modernity, the change is unavoidable but it’s best to catch modernity with protecting our own traditions if not we all have to adapt to the ‘monopoly world’.

29.11.2011 Hollywood Industry and Avatar

‘The term of political economy’ is used since ‘war years’. In World War 1 and World War 2 there are opposite blocs and they were fighting each other for several reasons like political, economic, social etc. We can mention that the wealthiest country has the power to control others by economically, socially and so on. In global world, the ’emperialisation’ is unavoidable and its main subject is about ‘economy’. The most powerful countries like USA has to show its dominance by using cultural elements like cinema, television and press.
For example, Hollywood holds the power to manage the whole film industry. The promotion process of a Hollywood film consists of various elements such as newspapers and magazine advertorials, radio and television commercials, video games, online promotions etc. The important thing is that all of these elements are present all around the world so economy of scales applies. (Example of Avatar).
The ‘imperialisation’ doesn’t consist of only cultural industry. The most important thing that the more economic power you have the more you are dominant in various areas. In addition, we are not in an equal world any more. The under-developed countries are not supported enough by developed countries so the poor countries can’t make any progress in different areas.


In 1940’s Adorno Horkheimer created the concept of the culture industry. He analyzed the industrial production of cultural goods as a global movement producing culture as a commodity. Cultural products, films, radio programs and magazines. Contemporary civilization made everything look alike. In every instance the culture industry supplied standardized goods to satisfy myriad demands that were identified as distinction which production standards had to meet.
According to Adorno, we can mention that the standardization continued with theory of ‘alienation’. People alienated each other and moreover they alienated to their work, dress, food and the other things that the popular culture had served them. Nowadays, the consumerist system insists all the time to people what to consume. If you don’t drink a coffee from ‘Starbucks’ or if you don’t eat in some popular restaurants like ‘Burger King’, you can’t be someone popular so the rejection by society starts at this point. The ‘false consciousness ’causes to some bad moral things like suicides so on. The most important thing is to be aware of ‘the popular culture’ and to protect our values and traditions. The standardization of people or countries is mean of ‘destroying the cultures and the death of originality.

Donald Duck is not so Innocent

A Starbucks sits in Saudi Arabia’s sacred city of Mecca, not far from Islam’s holiest site, serving its signature coffee to Muslim pilgrims who arrive from across the globe. The 1997 U.S. blockbuster film Titanic is praised by Chinese President Jiang Zemin in a speech before China’s National People’s Congress. Mickey Mouse welcomes its fans in Europe and Asia from his Magic Kingdoms in France or Japan. But the spread of American consumer culture goes beyond popular consumption.
Travel almost anywhere in the world today is possible today. Nonetheless you do not feel that you are in a different place that you experience local tastes since all of cities in the world started to look alike. You will are surrounded with global brands, movies, tastes but mostly American. Global products across the globe are more than mere accident. As a byproduct of globalization, it is part of a larger trend in the conscious dissemination of American attitudes and values that is often referred to as cultural imperialism.
Cultural imperialism involves much more than simple consumer goods; it involves the dissemination of American principles, such as freedom and democracy. Many cultures around the world are gradually disappearing due to the influence of corporate and cultural America.
Media imperialism goes hand in hand with cultural imperialism. According to the Guardian, American films accounted for approximately 80 percent of global box office revenue and one of the most successful one is Walt Disney Company. The Walt Disney Company commonly referred to as Disney is the largest media conglomerate in term of revenue. Taking on its current name in 1986, The Walt Disney Company expanded its existing operations and also started divisions focused upon theatre, radio, publishing, and online media. In addition, it has created new divisions of the company in order to market more mature content than it typically associates with its flagship family-oriented brands. The company is best known for the products of its film studio, the Walt Disney Motion Pictures Group, and today one of the largest and best-known studios in Hollywood. Disney also owns and operates the ABC broadcast television network; cable television networks such as Disney Channel, ESPN, and ABC Family; publishing, merchandising, and theatre divisions; and owns and licenses 14 theme parks around the world. Mickey Mouse, is the official mascot of The Walt Disney Company.
According to criticisms, ‘Disney’s animated features simultaneously soften and distribute messages of class hierarchy and anti-social hyper-individualism.” Scholars claim that it appears that the ‘good guys’ are usually designed with more European features and are more bright and curvy; on the other hand, the ‘bad guys’ tend to be drawn darker and with sharper angles. Pocahontas and Aladdin were drawn to look European with a darker shade of skin even though they were Native American and Middle Eastern, while the bad guys such as Jafar and the Hun in Mulan were drawn to look more like the nationalities they were supposed to represent. Even it was noted by them the voices of these characters allow the audiences to relate them to people. For example, Mufasa sounded noble and had a slight British accent.
As the last words, Disney films are considerably more cleverly than the printed comics. And their audiences are massive and growing. Disney films are prime household entertainment in the vast majority of North American homes. They form an integral part of child rising and family life. They are avidly consumed by millions, who, similar to the Star Trek audiences, consider them safe and good for family life. However while consuming those films, audiences needs to think that in Disney films some of these have been found to be, “sexism, racism, conservatism, hetero-sexism, , imperialism (cultural), imperialism (economic), literary vandalism, censorship, propaganda, paranoia, homophobia, exploitation, ecological devastation, anti-union repression


Sources: Wikipedia, Lee Artz Studies, A.H Itwaru Blog

Cultural Imperialism

Cultural imperialism is much more than just consuming goods, but dissemination of attitudes and values. Watching MTV, eating in McDonald’s, wearing Gap jeans, Gucci bags and so a “cool” superior world power in economy U.S gives more than these.
Many cultures around the world begin to disappear and the world is getting homogenized. New trend of the advertisiments in US is no more blonde and blue-eyes stereotypes, but a kind of diversity.

Benetton commercials are probably the best instance for this type of diversity. This is a way of giant corporations attempting the foreign countries with the same marketing technics.

Receiving culture is not always a treat. It may enrich the culture as well but the question is that, whether it is only a tool of marketing, in other words consumerism.