The “Invisible College”

 

  • Group of American anthropologists, linguists and psychiatrists developed in the 5O’s an alternative approach to « communication » to the « theory of communication » suggested in the late 40’s by Bell Lab’ scientist Claude Shannon.
  • In 1942, Gregory Bateson and Birdwhistell, Hall Goffman, Watzlawich  and others focused on the retroactive, circular model which was proposed by Norbert Wiener.They refused linear model of communication.
  • According to this model, the receiver is as equally important as the sender.
  • They claimed that Wiener‟s model was more suited to studying communication in the social sciences whereas the mathematical model was more applicable to the telecommunications engineers by whom and for whom, it was designed.
  • They developde 3 Hypotheses ;
  1. The elements themselves are less important than relationship between the elements
  2. All human behaviour has communicative value ; mutual relations and responds support vast system of communication.horizantal context of succession of message and their vertical context enable arrive at a logic of communication.
  3. Psychiatric disoreders are a sign of disturbed communication between individuals who carry the symptoms and the people around them.

https://www.nmmu.ac.za/documents/theses/The%20Experience%20of%20Instant%20Messaging%20Upon%20Adolescent%20Female%20Relationships.pdf

I can fly like Pokemon

With the increasing power of media, social scientists tried to understand ‘the effect’ on society, individual or groups. According to the studies, it was found that all media effects must begin with ‘attention’ and ‘exposure’ to some media message by an individual.

The stimulus-response model, whose main features are simply listed as, single message, individual receiver and reaction, dealt with individual response and individual reaction. It applies more or less equally to intended and unintended effects, hence there is a significance difference between response and reaction.

One of the media related change is called ‘unintended change’ according to the stimuli-response model.

Pokémon like kid is a very significant media example of this significant effect but before jumping to directly Pokémon like kid, it would be better to explain what pokemon is; Pokémon, pocket monsters, is the media franchise published and owned by video game company Nintendo, it was created in 1996 in Japan and became very popular and the second most successful video-game based media franchise in the world.

Having the wind of this achievement, Nintendo launched different media forms of the Pokémon as an animation, manga, trading cards, toys, book. Pikachu, a yellow pocket monster of the Pokemon group became a main character and he was liked very much not only for the kids but adults as well. The ability of Pikachu is protecting his master from any attack of bad monsters not having one single wound.

Pikachu became one of the news characters in Turkey. According to the news, in the newspapers, a seven year old Turkish boy, called Ferhat, had jumped from 7 meters by imagining himself as Pokémon Pikachu. As a result of this act, the Pokémon like kid Ferhat only broke one of his leg. Obviously he was so lucky. When he was asked about the reason of jumping, he replied; “I am a Pokémon and I can fly like him.”

The stimulus-response model worked on media effect on individuals. Especially children who exposure to fantasies, super heroes violence, deviance in the television continuously can be influenced  what they see on television, and they  try to imitate their hero’s acts which may be not possible in real life like Pokemon kid Ferhat.

http://www.radikal.com.tr/2000/10/30/turkiye/01pok.shtml ( news in Radikal)

source : wikipedia for pokemon

Inevitable Effects of Violence

 

I am one of the people claiming that there is a so-called ‘casual link’ between violence used in media and in society. The trend in media, especially in television, proportionally attributes violence and disharmony. It is indeed generally known fact that it is a ‘self-fulfilling prophecy’.

Violence in media especially affects children and the effects can be long lasting. As Wartella describes, there are 3 basic models explaining the situation: social learning (modeling) effects, priming effects and script theory effects.

According to the first parameter, children may take the characters in movies, TV series, etc. as their idol, so ‘learning’ how it is to be like them and acting accordingly. This may arise problems specially if the children in school age are in question since there are lots of news mentioning about children or the under aged killing their teachers, committing suicides, etc. Or, we can simply observe that the children watching cartoons all day are more aggressive or undisciplined.

In terms of the second parameter, we see that people have a tendency to show the same or more violence when they view it especially when interpersonal communication is allowed for. Because what they see, specifically in visual media, is intolerance and display of power. Therefore, this generally causes nothing more than negative psychological effects such as depression, anxiety and traumas.

What scripts theory, lastly, suggests is that human behavior is shaped according to patterns called ‘scripts’ and act analogously. This makes people ‘desensitized’ and ‘overloaded’ like machines, deprived of realizing their own feelings. For instance, we can say that the people who are affected by scripts overestimate the risk of being victimized in a crime in real life since they have already some kind of ‘tolerance’ towards violent behavior.

In the light of these assessments, what do you think the future of our children will be like?

 

 

The War of the Worlds (radio drama)/ hypodermic needle

The War of the Worlds was an episode of the American radio drama . It was performed as a Halloween episode of the series on October 30, 1938.
The first two thirds of the 60-minute broadcast were presented as a series of simulated “news bulletins”, which suggested to many listeners that an actual alien invasion by Martians was currently in progress. Compounding the issue was the fact that the Mercury Theatre on the Air was a “sustaining show” (it ran without commercial breaks), adding to the program’s realism. Although there were sensationalist accounts in the press about a supposed panic in response to the broadcast, the precise extent of listener response has been debated.
In the days following the adaptation, however, there was widespread outrage and panic by certain listeners who believed the events described in the program were real. The program’s news-bulletin format was decried as cruelly deceptive by some newspapers and public figures, leading to an outcry against the perpetrators of the broadcast. The episode secured Welles’s fame.

Hand cites studies by unnamed historians who “calculated that some six million heard the CBS broadcast; 1.7 million believed it to be true, and 1.2 million were ‘genuinely frightened'”. NBC’s audience, by contrast, was an estimated 30 million.
Robert E. Bartholomew grants that hundreds of thousands were frightened but calls evidence of people taking action based on their fear “scant” and “anecdotal”. Indeed, contemporary news articles indicate that police were swamped with hundreds of calls in numerous locations, but stories of people doing anything more than calling authorities mostly involve only small groups. Such stories were often reported by people who were panicking themselves.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_War_of_the_Worlds_%28radio_drama%29)

“Does the tree that falls in the wood make a noise if there’s nobody to hear it?”

The question is crucial for epistemology. It explores knowledge of reality. There are many thoughts about this question in philosophy. But, i want to discuss it in communication overview. When i say a word, if nobody didn’t hear it, could it be communication?

According to the information theory, and cybernetics as well, we need a transmitter and a reciever tı commuticate. The flow of information between transmitter and receiver is described as communication. When the interpersonel communication was thought, the transmitter and the receiver are two people, also in intercultural communication, we state that two or more different cultures, or the people that belogs to these cultures. If we look into mass communication, we can see that the mass communication organs are being prepared intended for audiences. In that case, when i wrote a paper, if anybody didn’t read it, is it communication? I think that it is not. It can be a topic for epistemology or may be psychology but it is not in communication’s borders..

‘One Cannot not Communicate’

An Austrian- Amerikan psychologist and philosopher Paul Watzlawick formed 5 Axioms of Communication in order to describe functioning in interpersonal communication.
‘One cannot not communicate’ is the first axiom in his theory. According to him there is no way one cannot not communicate.We are always communicating; even the silence sends out a message.Verbal or non-verbal, even the lack of action sends a message.Silence may be an implicit message to the others.One cannot respond in a communication,though this is communicating too.
Non-verbal actions send a message too. For example; one can nod to confirm an action.This has a message value too.Or cannot not respond to this communication, it’s a way of communicating too.

Cybernetics and Communication Theory

As we mentioned in our last lesson, circular communication model derived by American scholars which is based on Nobert Wiener’s work which is the origin of cybernetics.

In this article, I want to share some detailed informations about Nobert Wiener, cybernetics and  a formalization of the notion of feedback. Nobert Wiener was American mathematician who studied in MTI. Today lots of scholars in different kinds of science are walking on his path way. You can watch an interesting video about Nobert Wiener and fundamental perspective of cybernetics which subjected in MTI. Please click here to watch the video.

On the other hand, linear communication model of Shannon is the key component of communication. For understanding the feedback and noise movements we can basicly found our answers from this video which is simply explain communication theory. Please click here to watch the video

By these core components we can figure out how communication theory began and what are the systems in theory.

 

Information Theory

One of the most fundamental theory in the twentieth century is the Shannon-Weaver model which is also known as an Information Theory. This theory is very important for the theory of mass communication but at the same time it is also significant for the electronic communication in the world IT. This photo shows us the computer brain and the human brain almost work same according to information theory.

First if we look at the human on the authority of the information process; the source which can be a person or a corporation is transmitted the message by helping the tool. This tool that can be tv channel transmitter antenna or vocal cord. The message which is sent by the first resource becomes the signal. And this signal must be true for the realization of the process. Because in the other process, the receiver tool decode this signal and the decoded code becomes a new message. At the end, the message is delivered to the target. In this picture we can adapt this stencil to the information theory.

As we can see in this picture, the person who make this stencil made a connection between information theory and computer. Thereupon I try to make a connection between two of them. First the brain of the computer manipulates the source so the source is redirected the message for the purpose of it and then it monitors the message so this message becomes the signal and it is followed by the computer of the brain and this signal must be true for the process then it strategizes so the signal is decoded and delivered to the target. At first glance there are not seen lots of similarities between the mechanism of the human brain and computer  but when we started to examine extensively, the similarities are started to coming to the open.

Maybe we can say that by looking at these two case, in the future all the things about the social life in the societies will be done by the computers . Because the information distribution almost same between two of them. And also the computer has got more advantages about the information transmission. Because the noise source can be just technical problems in the computers but according to human;traditions,different cultures and all of these kind of things can be caused the noise source. And this provides the wrong message transmission but in the computers except the technical problems there are not any problems.

the source:http://browse.deviantart.com/?qh=&section=&q=information+theory#/dsdv2y

The Silent Language-Edward T. Hall

He based his approach to the difficulties of intercultural communication on personal observations in the field as an officer in a regiment of African-American soldiers during World War2. Laying the foundations for proxemics,Hall highlightened the various languages and codes, ‘the silent languages’ that characterize every culture; the languages of time, space, material possessions, modes of friendship and of reaching agreement.
According to this quotation we may say that communication is based on various ways of acts. We may communicate with our gestures, with our movements or with the aid of a language. Moreover we can communicate in silence. The silence is a different way to communicate whenever it tends to move someone or something each other and it helps to create relations between different cultures.
I think that our gestures, behaviors and also our ‘silence ’ helps to communicate with other people whether we know them or not. Of course we create different spaces to discover someone or something and this help us to interact with different people or cultures.
http://www.ishk.net/hall.pdf

The reason why feedback is a crucial for communication process.

The following are some of the importance of feedback in communication either in a formal or informal setting:

1. It completes the whole process of communication and makes it continuous.
2. It sustains communication process
3. It makes one know if one is really communication or making sense
4. It is a basis for measuring the effectiveness of communication
5. It is a good basis for planning on what next to be done especially statistical report
6. Communication will be useless without feedback
7. Feedback paves way for new idea generation