propaganda

For Lasswell, propaganda is a tool to gain the support of masses. Propaganda reaches the masses via the communication tool such as telephone, print media, radio and cinema. So media mainly support effective circulation of symbols and it is positioned as powerful tool.Government manages the opinion of masses via propaganda and this technique more economical than using violence or corruption. Also, propaganda is a moral instrument.

immigration movements

The Great Migration was the movement of 2 million blacks out of the Southern United States to the Northeast, Midwest and West from 1910 to 1930. Some historians differentiate between a First Great Migration (1910–30), numbering about 1.6 million migrants, and a Second Great Migration (1940 to 1970), in which 5 million or more people moved and to a wider variety of destinations
Between 1910 and 1930, the African American population grew by about 40% in Northern states, mostly in the major cities. Cities such as Chicago, Detroit, New York City, and Cleveland had some of the biggest increases in the early part of the century. Because changes were concentrated in cities, urban tensions rose as African Americans and new or recent European immigrants, both groups chiefly from rural societies, competed for jobs and housing with the white ethnic working class. Tensions were often most severe between ethnic Irish, defending their recently gained positions and territory, and recent immigrants and blacks.
Therefore strat to contribution on how immigrations became integrated US society .I think that the biggest question was ‘why are they integrated US society’ !

Functionalism and the Media

Harold Dwight Lasswell, the American political scientist was interested in mainly propaganda,public afffairs and elections.With his well-known formula ”Who says what in which channel to whom with what effect?” is conceptual framework for the functionalist sociology of the media.According to Lasswell there are three functions of communication in society;
1)Surveillance of the environment
2)Correlation of components of society
3)Cultural transmission form one generation to the next

Example:
Deutsche Welle –The 2011 Nobel Prize for Chemistry was awarded to Israeli chemist Daniel Shechtman, whose discoveries were intensely questioned before revolutionizing the way scientists conceive of solid matter wrote Sean Sinico.

Who – Sean Sinico

What – The Nobel Prize for Chemistry award

Channel – Deutsche Welle

Whom – Public

Effect –Inform the public about 2011 Nobel Prize for Chemistry

Altough Lasswell’s model is simple and easy,the diasadvantage of his model is the lack of feedback.

c. wright mills: power, craftsmanship, and private troubles and public issues

Alienation. C. Wright Mills argued that one of the characteristic features of contemporary American social structure was ‘its systematic creation and maintenance of estrangement from society and selfhood (1951: 340). In building his argument around the conditions of modern work he drew upon Marx – and upon American writers such as Thoreau. He contrasts traditions of craftsmanship (which at work had become the preserve of miniscule groups of professionals, and in leisure had been trivialized into ‘hobbies’) with the routinized activity of modern work.

As tool becomes machine, man is estranged from the intellectual potentialities and aspects of work; and each individual is routinized in the name of increased and cheaper per unit productivity. The whole unit and the meaning of time is modified…. The introduction of office machinery and sales devices has been mechanizing the office and the salesroom, the two big locales of white-collar work…. None of the features of work as craftsmanship is prevalent in office and salesroom, and, in addition, some features of white-collar work, such as the personality market, go well beyond the alienating conditions of wage-work. (Mills 1951: 226-7)

In 1950’s, the term of ‘the alienation’ became very popular.I would say after the industrialisation, the ‘system of production’ has changed as well as the human and the term of power.
The human started to alienate new culture and new power. Productivity and human became separated from each other. In fact human estranged his own product. He couldn’t accept his own product and this leads to unsocialization so this happiness ends with powerty of ‘a being human’.

Propaganda in the view of Public Attention

A Collection of Posters Explaining Laswell’s Approach to Mass Communication Research

Influenced by contemporary events of the age, Laswell’s (1902-1978) works were mainly based on instruments, especially propaganda, for governmental management of opinion by the public. Either used for good or evil purposes, Laswell was of the opinion that propaganda is a way to show collectivity, a kind of democracy yielding to certain actions. At below, you shall find a pile of posters published by the Allied Forces during the Second World War, all having impulses for the public so as to take an action especially in the daily life and attain their support against the Enemies:

   


The Chicago School

In the early first decade of 20th century in the United Stated, the concept of the communication went hand in hand with social studies which base was quantitative and analytical methods. The Chicago School played a very important role to develop social theories with empirical foundation. They focused on the city as social laboratory.

During those years, the significant trend was the migration of the people to the United Stated from different parts of the World as well as the movement of people from rural to big cities.
It was the time of great growth and significant changes with new opportunities however this mobilities caused social problems, like racism, homicide, suicide, poverty, which were created by the dynamics of the masses. Different people from different cultures and languages were forced to communicate with each other by the social environment.

The Chicago School developed a set of standard assumptions to solve the social problems. The main assumptions of the school were the quantitative methodologies, which were the only method to study on urban social phenomena. This approach was adopted from natural sciences, especially ecological science which is studied on the species behaviors in their environment. The city conditions and using qualitative methods and data brought great richness to the depth of the work. However, the subject was human and his changing nature and applicability of the quantitative data to real life became one of the School’s liability.