For Harold Innis, the key to social change is found in the development of communication media. He claims that each medium embodies a bias in terms of the organization and the control of information. Any empire or society is generally concerned with the duration over time and the extension in space.
Time-biased media, such as stone and clay, are durable and heavy. Since they are difficult to move, they do not encourage territorial expansion; however, since they have a long life, they do encourage the extension of empire over time. Innis associated these media with the customary, the sacred, and the moral. Time-biased media facilitate the development of social hierarchies, as archetypally exemplified by ancient Egypt. For Innis, speech is a time-biased medium.
Space-biased media are light and portable; they can be transported over large distances. They are associated with secular and territorial societies; they facilitate the expansion of empire over space. Paper is such medium; it is readily transported, but has a relatively short lifespan.
Every culture created their own way of communication according to time or space biased. We can say that some ways of communication were durable in contrast some of them are transported. For example Egyptians used papyrus or paper which were the durable and heavy and their culture and institutions were formed according to these’ time-based ‘media.
Writing on clay and on stone has been preserved more effectively than that on papyrus. Since durable commodities emphasize time and continuity
We can give an example that Les Ottomans were utilized firmans to communicate and they were written something in these firmans that we can learn something about their way of life, empirement, culture etc.We can interfere that the time and space biased media help to us learn something about different cultures and their ‘world’.