Punk Music as an Underground Press

The birth of underground press lead in mid 15th century onwards. The role of underground press has been power although people hasn’t had enough power and conditions. The underground media, in that centuries, consisted in Reformation Movements ( 1520 ), American Revolution( 1765-83 ) and French Revolution (1789 ). Each counterculture movement was the organ that constructed resistance network. These become a voice of independence, freedom and liberty.
In 1960s and 1970s, the term “underground media” is used to refer to illegal publications under oppresive regimes, such as, “samizdat” in Soviet Union and “bibula” in Poland. The underground press were the independently published and distributed underground papers associated with the countercultere in United State, United Kingdom and other western nations. Public tend to set up their life in peace and freedom excluded war, oppression and expoiltation. Therefore the role movements were indispensably existed, for instance, civil rights, black power, feminist movement, opposition movement to the war in Vietnam.
People reflect their reaction via pamphlets, fanzines, comics, flyers, posters and so on. The significant movements, in 1970s, is punk subculture which centres of punk rock music , comprises a diverse array of ideologies, fashions and forms of expressions including visual art, dance, literature and film. They had punk music magazines published in photocopied formats. It had been spread rapidly. The subculture is largely characterized by anti-establishment views and the promotion of individual freedom. The punks are against to capitalism ideologies. They tend to assume that people work in order to enjoy life through culture and entertainment. Punks have inherent self-reliance and “do it yourself” attitude. They have a chord to write their own band in hopes that they would play in the young person’s town.
In conclusion, punk dress heavy chains, bracelets, bullet helmets (as an oppositation indicator of anti-military and police ) that the symbol of slavery. They also have different hair style as Mohawk. Along punks have tatoo and piercings as a meaningful of political. Additionally they buy their clothes in second-hand stores to emphasize the opposition of consumption.

Who wants to be volunteer for publish Fanzine? (Week 4)

Fanzine is created by “fanatic” and “magazine” words which does not has an old history in Turkey. Fanzine is the significiant instance in alternative media which is independent from financial resources, and the hierarchical structure. Everyone can produce any fanzine who has a scissors and glue or duplicating possibility. Nevertheless, Turkey does not has large number of fanzine.
Turkey’s fanzine history has started with Mondo Trasho ve Laneth in 1991. Authors who had written about cinema, literature and music in Mondo Trasho. On the other hand Laneth’s authors had written about heavy metal only. The first number is only 35 printed copies of Laneth, has reached sales of 500 in the fourth edition. And the last edition had reached 2,700 copies when the fanzine was closed. But nowadays both of them are not running.
Publishing house does not prefer publish materials without famous authors in Turkey. As a consequence, being fanzine authors are preffered by students or who wants to be an famous author. This situation has three advantages. First one is that publishing fanzine is cheaper and more free than others. The second one is nick name is free to use. And third one is how many will be printed depends on the author’s request. Everyone can write their thoughts in free way. Therefore being fanzine authors are preffered usually by literature authors in Turkey who does not have any opportunity in publishing house. However everyone can write about politics, art, football or something like that.
The most important point for fanzine that who wants to be volunteer? Because, fanzine authors does not earn enough money for their life. They publish it in publishing house or cafes without money. Hence old fanzine authors has a another job for survive their life. As a result, fanzines does not have a long life in Turkey.

Social Media as an ‘Alternative’

Because of the media conglomeration and restrictions to the radical media, people started to look for new ways to get information from more reliable sources rather than the traditional media that do not share the information and hide facts based on their biases.

Especially thanks to the development of the internet, it has become easier to achieve the means of production of media. Therefore, more and more independent internet newspapers, blogs and zines started to emerge every day. It can be said that alternative media changed the way we perceive the contemporary world.

After the social movement Gezi in Turkey, people started to realize that the mainstream media was not enough to get information about what was going on. This is when the importance of alternative media was realized by the people. For example, social media has been used during the resistance in order to communicate and organize.

However, it (social media) is used by the government too and it is not completely free from regulations or restrictions of the government. If it is not used for propaganda of the government like the state owned channels always do, than it is always under pressure. For example, twitter has been seen as a trouble by our PM, so he simply banned access from Turkey for his own agenda. Consequently, it shows how the alternative media should be free from all the regulations and restrictions that limit our freedom.

Media’s New Born: Call it Alternative ! (Week 3)

I have read an article on alternative media entitled; The “Alternative Media” Challenges Officialdom’s Views, which you can find at: http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-alternative-media-challenges-officialdoms-views/5323701. What caught my eye is that the author claims that mainstream media is under threat and challenge, and that threat is “alternative media”. Very welcoming for a new born!

The reason they have been called alternative, is because they are seen as a second option or a substitute. And the definition of substitute lies in replacing, giving place or changing something by something else, usually if the former is not satisfying and convenient. People, readers and media consumers think that media is failing to tell people the truth and is more or less working to deceive them. Let’s take the social networks for instance; Twitter or Facebook display or create news stories and try as much as possible to share them with the populace, which can sometimes, or most of the time create a direct passive understanding of these news stories. That is to say, social networks are another type of alternative media that challenge the system.

 Critiquing “mainstream” vs. “alternative” media is pursuing a dead-end paradigm, and analyzing media in general is a complex endeavor. Media has many forms and structural dynamics and quite often they overlap. There is print vs. radio vs. TV vs. internet, all of which use different mechanisms to tell a story. And within each there are also various dynamics. There is news vs. commentary vs. entertainment. While it is true that the general public has been somewhat dumbed down, they are also quite aware. Those who love the tabloids don’t pretend they are something they are not. People know the tabloids are sensationalized trash, they just happen to enjoy them. 

A mainstream media institution (public or private) most often aims to maximize profit or sells an elite audience to advertisers for its main source of revenue. It is virtually always structured in accord with and to help reinforce society’s defining hierarchical social relationships, and is generally controlled by and controlling of other major social institutions, particularly corporations.

In contrast, an alternative media institution (to the extent possible given its circumstances) doesn’t try to maximize profits, doesn’t primarily sell audience to advertisers for revenues (and so seeks broad and non-elite audience), is structured to subvert society’s defining hierarchical social relationships, and is structurally profoundly different from and as independent of other major social institutions, particularly corporations, as it can be. An alternative media institution sees itself as part of a project to establish new ways of organizing media and social activity and it is committed to furthering these as a whole, and not just its own preservation.

Multi-layered meanings of ‘alternative’

Alternative media is the common contrast in the circumstances of binaries that both distinct and integrate different forms of social reality. This type of media mainly attempts to construct a space in order to criticize mass media and empower citizens with considering function of media as a public model.
The most obvious reflection of me is that there were incredible numbers of definition to express what is ‘alternative’. Even though, they might have particular differences in itself but it is quite difficult to make a distinction between those alternative media approaches. For instances, radical media, activist media, tactical media are one of the title of those approaches. Yet, they actually could be seen as fundamentally in the same way because their main attempt is highly clear that aim to construct news to support social reality and support citizen rather than to fund power holders. My primitive reflection might be quite manifest so that it is more important to comprehend reason of those distinction in a much more sophisticated way.
Discussions between those different alternative media segments illustrated that they are focusing on some different partial of the term ‘alternative’. For instance, one of the reflections while caring the expression of ‘democratic potential’, other approach could care about socialist possibilities, participatory communication or alternative as a form of art. Therefore, it is difficult to argue that they are same in general because different alternative media units strive to create meaning with their approaching to term alternative.
Consequently, the most adequate argument can be conceptualize within the realization of different forms of alternatives and also those distinctions demonstrate that alternative is a vigorous term that have a potential to embody different forms of meaning throughout the dominant social strata. Therefore, this divided parts of the alternative media approaches could not be articulated in one dimension.

The first experience as the author as producer in the alternative media platform: Flows

Alternative media is much more comprehensive issue than it is predicted. In the literature, it is possible to mention about the various perspectives in order to conceptualize the alternative media. Consequently, it should be considered as the general umbrella that gathers different perspectives and paradigms through challenge to the dominant power in terms of its production, content, participation, form, distribution and so on. Beyond the mass communication, it asks different questions so as to constitute itself with its distinctive features that provide being the alternative. From how can include everyone into the communication process as participatory, how media can provide the space for minorities to express their opinion, how unequal flows of communication regulated to how citizens can attend public affair. The critical thing is that these questions are kind of reflections of the main concerns of the alternative media, from this point of view, providing emancipatory and democratic potential of the new media and communication can be considered as main concerns.
First and foremost, through providing two-way communication, alternative media annihilates the sharp distinction between producer and receiver. As Benjamin conceptualizes that the author as producer, receiver gains active role as a subject, because they become included the both production and participation process. The author as producer manifest itself in non-hierachial and horizontal structure as Deleuz and Guattari emphasizes with the notion of rhizome. It means that without no hierarchy and domination, everyone can reflects opinion in order to raise discussion in the public sphere regardless their gender, religion, ethinicity, social classes and so on. This situation also ensures the empowerment of the receiver, because it makes possible to reflects their experience in the large extent interactively and in this way they learn how contribute and participate the media in order to provide democratic attitudes from micro level to macro level, from media to politics.
In addition, in general tendency, alternative media is defined especially as except the mainstream media. However this kind of approach to the alternative media is not enough in order to comprehend its meaning entirely, because it causes the restriction of its meaning. In particular, if critical media product has potential to make the medium as critical medium even if produced in traditional/mainstream media, it can be categorized under some circumstances as alternative media. It means that the audience realizing or without realizing may be in the process of production of critical media as the alternative media although other qualities for being alternative still can not achieved. For instance, recently after the death of Berkin Elvan, radio programmer Arzu Çağlayan in Best FM, throughout three days, memorialized him via emphasizing his death by police officers in Gezi Resistance. In the framework of this example, while Best FM is known as one of the mainstream radio channel in Turkey, remembrance of Berkin Elvan can be thought as critical media product that make Best FM alternative media under this circumstance. Also she was fired from her job because of questioning domination and it shows that how mainstream media can return the alternative media through producing critical medium now and again especially in the social movements times.

To understand Mainstream Media and Alternative Media

Mainstream Media
Mainstream media generally uses as a voice of the majority. Therefore mainstream media typcially reach a larger audience. Its outlet found on television, radio, in newspaper and other publications. These extensive links of communication provide them being effective and powerfull. It makes easy to achieve their aim. The main aim of mainstream media organization is to amuse people towards their benefits. These organizations make money appealing as many people as possible. They seem people as part of their project. Hence they want to see people as uneducated and unconscious which means that from books to movies to magazines are built by mainstream media organizations.
Alternative Media
The main aim of alternative media is to offer different perspective that presents the truths that is not under the control of goverment or big business organizations. Alternative media may involve traditional media forms such as newspaper, magazines,television, radio and film, like mainstream media, as well as non-traditional media such as zines and other web-based publications (e-books, e-magazines, blogs, streamed video).Additionally it also includes street theatre, dance, murals, postering, leaflet, comics, grafiti. The main function is to challenge to status quo and provide alternative perspectives. In conclusion, alternative media serves participatory platforms that share and express free idea via created communication way.

The alternative media is making it visible to the truth (Week 3)

Based on the “Another media is possible” idea of the alternative media has many different forms in the world. It gives voices to the voiceless, media power to the powerless as well as to transcend the filtering and cencorship of information by corporate information monopolies, state monopolies, or cultural monopolies in public information and communication. Plenty of web sites, tabloid magazines, comics, social platform, graffiti, news portal, public theatre can named in alternative media.
Content and form of traditional media are ideological. It is not independent of the state rules. Because of this, mainstream and/or traditional media have to faitful to rules which decides what can be said or not. Therefore, the most power of the alternative media is making it visible to the truth. Because, alternative media can not precluded in certain extent.
This condition be seen principally economic perspective, unemployment, sexism, ethnic discrimination, etc. Traditional media are covered by the rules of law and financial resources which are the most powerful cencorship. Therefore, number of alternative media producers are increasing with each passing day. And alternative media sources usually explain of the real reason and/or number for incidents. As a consequence, alternative media is crosscheck for traditional media and dominants.