Television and computer technology

Television technology has created a magnificent electronic media, unmatched in modern history. Thanks to the technology of mass communications, the collection and distribution of news are simplified, and the number of audience increased significantly. This is a natural result of the possibilities of television to cover the widest of all the inhabitants of the area, all age groups and social classes. The convergence between television technology, communications and computer technology, creates a completely new environment in which it must inevitably re-create the basis on which all electronic media. Reproduction of distribution channels, the use of new transmission routes and new sources of information, opens opportunities two-way communication in the domain that has traditionally been unilateral, creating new lines of development of television technology.

What is a television? It is a complex technical system for the creation and transmission of audio and video content. The name is derived from Greek words thle (far in the distance) and the Latin visus (sight, watching), then television is watching from a distance.

Television images hired most of our senses, encourages reflection and leaves no one indifferent. From the very beginning of its existence, television was our prolonged (extended) sense, lead us to places which we alone cannot reach. Television allowed us to “attend” to significant events. Digital television and computer technologies provide unlimited creative possibilities in television production.  Many futuristic predictions have become reality – part of everyday life. During the last two decades, computer technology has evolved with astonishing speed. From year to year, PC computers are becoming faster, smaller and cheaper.

Searching for computer systems which are endowed with the ability to think, discover meaning, learning on the basis of experience and perform other tasks, are already  brought significant results in the field of artificial intelligence. Today computers can respond to spoken commands in the languages that are not a language of computers, to recognize shapes and schemes and even to serve as medical devices. However, among scientists and philosophers, the question remains whether the computers ever be able to think like humans and possess intuition, feelings, consciousness.

The development of digital electronics was contributed to the improvement of television equipment. Mid-eighties, computer becomes an integral part of television equipment, which gradually developed into a new audiovisual system that connects modern information technology and traditional television systems. On the other hand, with the advent of PC technology in the eighties, computers get their place in the journalism newsrooms, where they are mainly used for word processing. By connecting  computers of redaction to the network,  enabled the exchange of text within one or more media outlets. By integrating these networks with computers in TV production and  studio technique, in the nineties, and the emergence of multimedia network services, to journalists allowed access to video and audio materials, as well as sharing them with other newsroom. Therefore, computers have become an integral part of the entire system with a television center.

Television as an independent and “imaginative” means of mass communication, no doubt played a significant role in the political, economic, and overall life of the Planet. Extremely high quality television programming nowadays achieved thanks to digital television technology. This television program can be seen as a work of art that to the viewer creates a certain feeling and affect the state of the spirit.

Television and the Internet are now the dominant empire that stretches to far greater territory of any country that has ever existed in history. Television and the Internet are a magnificent auditorium many, unsurpassed in the development of modern civilization.


The first graffiti emerged in the late seventies in the United States, specifically in New York, in the Bronx, where the pioneers of this art began to transfer sketches of drawings, letters on the wall, adopting the common name for this form of artistic expression – graffiti. The first European graffiti were created in the early eighties on the Berlin wall. So the graffiti are first used as propaganda aimed at the reunification of the German people, what happened about ten years later, when the Berlin Wall fell, and with it the first European graffiti are destroyed. Shortly after Berlin, graffiti are appeared in Paris, Amsterdam, Rome and London. In the mid-eighties graffiti could be seen in every major city of Europe and the rest of the world.

Social meaning of graphite lies in the fact that they present an alternative media of communication that opposes means of mass communication. Young people use these activities and ways to interact because they are unable to communicate in socially acceptable ways, and they have a need to convey their attitude and values, even if it is done by writing and drawing on public land. This specific form of human expression allows individuals to learn about the social environment with its identity and values often deviate from the norms of the environment. In that way they want  to connect with like-minded people.

Graffiti is often associated with the political and social situation in the society, and as such serve as a parameter of social change. It is not unusual that in tense , even crisis situations, spontaneously react to the political, and social realities with graffiti. Graffiti can also serve as an important platform to raise public and disruption of other cultures. Authors graphite their visual work of art placed in public space and they see it as “intact format” to communicate with ordinary people, and about socially relevant topics. Thus aesthetically valuable messages sent in the form of simple written words, sometimes elaborate wall paintings. With their own work and language they are trying to encourage changes in the social and cultural spheres of society.


Alternative computing practices

E-Democracy in Turkey

To start with I want to define what democracy is according to people of a society. Many people support democracy because of a variety of reasons. For some, democracy is a way of protecting the interests of individuals or some groups. For others, democracy is a way to achieve the common good for the society. Some other perspectives towards democracy says that democracy is the best way to decide how to manage a community.

What e-democracy means is; using computer Networks in the management, doing the democratic activities via the computer Networks, using Internet or e-mails in order to participate. Thus, the citizens can defend themselves and can react to some phenomena by using these information and communication technologies.

In order to be successful e-democracy system must perform two important objectives:

1-      To provide access to the informational and political processes, services and short-cuts to the citizens.

2-      Make the passive citizens to get involved in this system by informing and representing the citizen, encouraging them to vote, to provide a counseling service for them, to create a unity and make them to be active in this system.

In order to make e-democracy work appropriately, the technological infrastructure, the regulations and the level of political socialization should be sufficient. In addition to this, in the transition process of the e-democracy, the e-culture should also be prevalent.

In the transition process to e-democracy in Turkey we have some basic problems like; e-culture, political socialization, the lack of legislation, the insufficiency of technological infrastructure and the lack of experts in this area. In Turkey the information technology is being used in business procedures or the citizens use it for playing games or following the magazine etc. Giving feedback on the issues that concern the citizens or follow them through the information technologies has not been common yet in Turkey.  As a society we have a personality that obeys and accepts an authority. We do not have an interrogative, investigator and participatory soul.

The e-democracy project website in Turkey:


1-       Şahin, A. & Temizel, H. & Temizel, M. Türkiye’de Demokrasiden E-Demoraksiye Geçiş Süreci ve Karşılaşılan Sorunlar. Retrieved from;


What E-Democracy Connotes in our lifes?


                                                                                                                       (WEEK 7)

There are many definitions of democracy for people or citizens. Generally, it means that it is right for say opinions in society in a freely way about different issues in terms of economic, social justice, political or education etc. As people who want to say something in democratic frame, there isn’t any restrictions, pressures, obligations on people. When we look at how  democratic society is conducted behalf of politic, people who have right to vote about one political party which get along well with their mentalities. After they voted, parties which are enumerated according to percentages which is one of the most important indicator of what democratic society means in todays life condition so these are showed that what democracy is before I penetrate that what e-democracy is. The concept of  e-democracy which enters to our lifes with improvement of technology. With technology particularly improvement of Internet, new information age was start because not only communication styles of people change, which means they interact, talk with each other through mail, through social media, they organize collectively, they react something more than that their daily life, they hold a place in different areas, organizations in the Internet to promulgate their voice and it unfolds new democratic environment for citizens because they participate to say something, to express their opinions. Actually, this new democratic environment is arguable because in order to create e-democracy, there should be people who have Internet access. In addition to this, political condition is so crucial in terms of using Internet behalf of Information Communication Technology to reach people or to have knowledge them but there is an obstacle when I think e-democracy because everybody has no Internet access or don’t know how to use it and because of this reason we don’t generalize e- democracy that this is available for every person to reach them.  I want to give examples from the world. In Newyork, South Bristol, deputies who asked their citizens about building new fire brigade. Portion of acception is %30, and assembly which continued their researchers with mail in order to provide big participation of citizen.

In Malaysia, the e-posta system encircled around Malaysia Net. The writer, who is called Sang Kancil, who haven’t chance to publish their wrtings in Malaysia. And he started to write his opinions about this issue in e mail which includes 800 subscribers. Also, these subscribers write their  spread their thoughts in their country about politics after they write, politicians who defend and corresponds claims which subscribers write about themselves. This example is so effective about how Internet exaggerates limitations.

In England, December 1997, there was applied campaing which was called ‘Have Your Say’ and this was good example about participation. Also, in February 1998, there was taken feedback of citizen during preparation of ‘Freedom of Information Act’.(I take these examples from this link: Page 257-258 : )

I add some informations to these. Lucas Walsh who gave conference about what e-democracy is Sdyney in 2004. He investigates e-democracy according to four types. e-government services and administration; participatory technologies; informal modes of participation using the Internet; and mass news media. The first type is about goverment who gives information, have knowledge them about what is going  on in country about every issue, about obligations, laws, social issues through Internet in terms of specific system to their citizens in order to provide democracy. Walsh gives example Austriali. E-governance is most developed than other countries. According to this, Austrialian people who have an idea about taxation, have an idea about every discussions of politicians through website . The second one is about voting in a formal way. Because of voting, participation enlarges. For example; The Citizenscape website of  Western Australia promotes active participation in involvement in decision making and informs about citizenship related activities.( Page 4) The third type is about individual blogs, and Hactivism which isn’t formal like first and second types of  e- democracy. Especially, in personal blogs, people who write their thoughts independently way because  blogs which implicates their inner worlds, their reactions what the issue is but on the other hand, Hacktivism is different because they take hold of information , web pages or they damage. In the fourth type,news media which disseminates information. It has many channel spread knowledges to people. Sweden, for example, has formally recognised the “problems with the Swedish mass media in contributing to the public sphere by fulfilling the democratic indicator of enlightened understanding” (Rothstein et al. 1995) so I try yo summarize informations from article.

As I look at Turkey behalf of e-democracy, it isn’t possible to say available environment for it. The first obstacle is that political condition because our political environment rulership party doesn’t allow people to say their ideas, opinions even if  we live in a democratic country. What my example about is this, in mass media , the number of contest programs are so limited and also people who hold a place there and who can’t talk about political problem in a freely way. Also, the year before our rulership party close personal blogs during two days because some blogger who criticize rulership ideology so yes we live in democratic country because we vote and then percentages which talk behalf of political schema and manipulate our lifes but after voting, there isn’t any resistance, any promulgation of ideas of people  so  ironic situation occurs because rulership party gather around an assembly, decide on issues, talk and discuss them and then  approve them  in terms of viable conditions without asking public, or individuals so I think that Turkey which should be progressive about an issue of e-democracy. After maybe 4 or 5 years, the conditions are available for conducting e-democracy in Turkey.

In conclusion, today, there are many applications and examples of e-democracy in some countries. Some of them which I give way successful but it isn’t generalizable or applied every country because of political conditions, politicians who manipulate peoples life and their decisions is determining. If they don’t apply e-democracy, people have no chance to hold a place , react independently and act collectively through Internet and what advantages of e-democracy is that which fetches interactiviness- attractiveness, enlarges communication possibilities, disseminates informations between people, establishes comprehensive relations but on the other hand there should be two things which is answered to talk about e-democracy how we talk about e-democracy if people don’t use Internet and how we talk about e-democracy if political hands don’t want to take an action towards problems,issues with their citizens?






E-Democracy: May be in the future

The core rights of citizenship and critism of the basic structure of communication have been powerfully linked in the work of Raymond William, who argues that the basic rights of citizen to speak and hear are linked to the power to transmit and receive information.(Friedland,1996)In order to transfer the political system from representative democracy to direct democracy, it is crutial to provide certain platforms for citizens by governments to receive as well as trasmit inf0rmation about current issues in the state. If these platforms can be accessable from internet, it may be easier for citizens to follow and make contributions.


Being able to contribute to the state issues, citizens would feel ‘involved’ and ‘ part of the state’. However, electronic usage can also limit the amount of citizens. Although, Barber advocates teledemocratic measures, he does so only within a series of measures oriented toward ‘strong democracy’, including the use of new commmunications technologies to develop strengthened neighborhood assemblies, televised town meetings, a national civic communications cooperative, a civic videotex service to equalize access to information and promote full civic education of all citizens, and electronic balloting.Barber does not offer these measures as ends in themselves, but as means to develop stronger citizen participation in democratic governance in a society in which national scale precludes direct democratic assembly.(Friedland, 1996)


Electronic democracy can be seen possible at the moment. On the other hand, it may be implementted effeciently 0nly in the up coming decades. It is not enough just providing adequate conditions for the citizens. If not a lot of people do not go and vote once in 4 or 5 years, why would they want to be involve in the process almost everyday?If just a minority group use the electronic democracy technologies, then how we can differ that political system from representted democracy?





Friedland, L. A. (1996) “Electronic democracy and the new citizenship”, in Media, Culture and Society, vol. 18, pp. 185-212


“Israel Loves Iran” Campaign

The conflict between Iran and Israel causes black clouds on Middle East region. All over the World, the tension between these two states, Iran and Israel, is wellknown. However, “Isreal-Loves-Iran” Movement in Facebook was a good example of people who are eager to create communication with eachother in this crisis environment.  Movement startted with Ronny Edry, citizen from Israel, postted a photo on Facebook holding his daughter and an Israeli flag saying “Iranians, we will never bomb your country, we love you ” on 12/03/2012. In few hours, many people from Israel shared the same message in their profiles with their own pictures.  In 24 hours Iranians startted to send same massages back : “Isrealians, we love you too”. This huge wave grew day by day and gave a kick off to the establishment of “Peace Factory”. The motto was simple but clear ” They advertise war. We will advertise peace.”


We can categorize the slogan of “Israel Loves Iran” as cultural and political jamming.  There is political aspect of this conlict issue as well as its social aspect. Just like with the more classic  ‘corporate’ cultural jams, civil society actors also increasingly use cultural jamming techniques in their political communication and politically orientted campaigns. (Bailey, Cammaerts & Carpentier,2008) In the beginning of the “Israel Loves Iran” Campaign, it was more relatted to social aspects of the issue. We can see this by looking at the projects they worked on. Projects like “Iranians in Tel Aviv”, “Peace-Product of the Year” , “Shana Tova/ Happy New Year”, “Send a Heart” and “Coffee with You”  are basicly focusing on increasing the social awareness in both societies by mentionning better communcation and creating peaceful communication environment between two communities. Project about the political aspect came afterwards. “Vote Peace” ,”Stop War”, “War! What War?”, “Not Ready to Die in Your War” and “M12-Peace Day” projects aim to show Isrealian’s reactions about the government’s policies.


The policies that both governments foster is not supportted by certain amount of people from both communities. This campaign helped them to show their dissents by jamming the so-called verity, Israel hates Iran and turned it to a slogan. It can be a good example to take attention of a lot of people and create a certain awareness. However, it can not be effecient unless there is a physical communication not just a virtual one. Until, they make new projects in order to build the physical interaction among the citizens of two states, the campaign will not go forwards.



Bailey, O. G., Cammaerts, B. and Carpentier, N. (2008) Understanding Alternative Media. Berkshire: Open University Press



Artwork And Movements Behalf Of Alternative


I want to start with crucial points from article which is called ‘Art, Aesthetic, Radical Media and Communication’. In this article, the concent encircles about relations between art and media. In order to evaluate this relation, there are three movement are evaluated. These are called Dada movement, Surrealists, and Situationists. How these are shaped was that in terms of war,  political events  so through these movements, we come to term ‘art work’.  According to Walter Benjamin (1973)  ‘artworks which in the era of technical reproducibility.’ On the other hand, Bertolt Brecht and Erwin Piscator who injected a series of new dimensions into theatrical performance during the 1920s. They worked in Germany. Also, their works reflected to films so undoubtedly, what I learn from this article is that yes there were some movements which were shaped by political conditions and reacted situations and then we get access to artworks and we see creative paintings which are meaningful for painters.

Now, I want to give knowledges about movements from different sources to have and idea. Dada movement was the first one and I think that which enfoulded shaping other movements.. Dada emerged in Germany in 1916 as a collaboration between artists of several nations including Germany, France, and Switzerland. Initially, it was conceived as an anti-war art movement, and much of the early work takes the form of protest art. The movement chose the name “Dada” by inserting a slip of paper into a French dictionary and choosing the word it landed on, which happens to mean a hobbyhorse or child’s toy. ( Also, I give one example of Dadaism. The link is here to see  ( In this picture, there were crucial people who were from different areas like politician, balet dancer, physicist, philosopher from different angles who were defragment in the same place so if I evaluate dada art, there won’t be any special rule which apply in paintings from dissimilar drawing. It isn’t react something although it emerged in war time so according to dada, we have chance to dissimilar paintings from painters’ point of view.

The other movement,after Dada, was Surrealism. The Surrealists movement was founded in Paris by a small group of writers and artists who sought to channel the unconscious as a means to unlock the power of the imagination.( It is different than Dada movement because it uses Cubism, it engages with unconscious because they want to reflect unconscious thing to their paintings and especially they were inspired by Freud.

I want to give some examples about Surrealist picture. And then I evaluate their common points.

1-      (,

2-      (


so what common characteristic of this painting are they are shaped in terms of different things and they aren’t relevant to each other. They show to us out of familiar things and I think that they represent to think our world, things which we know from dissimilar angles. It isn’t service specific purpose but they work to budge on their paintings with their unconsciousness.

Last movement is called Situationists. They originated in a small band of avante-garde artists and intellectuals influenced by Dada, Surrealism and Lettrism.  The Situationists increasingly applied their critique not only in culture but to all aspects of capitalist society. ( so if I compare Situationists to other movements, it is quite reactionary and I think it is more realistic picture than others because it shows us that realities of the world which we live in in terms of economic frame.

As I think that relatedness of these movements behalf of alternativeness, it encircles with colours, drawings. It isn’t any written thing , defenders of these movements reflect their ideas, their opinions, their inner world to us whether we understand or not. Also, they show us to creativeness because it is subjective because it isn’t restricted in any way. Especially, for example Dadaism, it combines things or people in the same picture but some people don’t understand what its meaning or what it implies for us. On the other hand, Surrealism is so meaningless because it defragments components which are irrelevant with each other and represents to us utopic picture which won’t realize and won’t see in real world. Actually, it detachs us from real world but generally, according to these movements which were developed by painter and shaped in terms of specific issues and so  we see that how people use their own perpectives and use their reflections to their paintings about our social life so what they represent to us is alternative works behalf of dissimilar contents with paintings but at that time defenders of these movements reflect or react but today is it possible to say that they are free , they don’t encounter pressures?






Tactics of cultural resistance graffiti, jokes, street theatre, and culture jamming


Culture jamming, is the act of using existing media such as billboards, bus-ads, posters, and other ads to comment on those very media themselves or on society in general, using the original medium’s communication method. It is based on the idea that advertising is little more than propaganda for established interests, and that there is little escape from this propaganda in industrialized nations.

The most well known form of culture jamming may be the subvertising which can be defined as the creative anti-ads of making parodies of corporate and political advertisements in order to make an ironic statement. these images target a specific audience to whom they wanted to make an enlightenment and make them to think about their decisions. In other words subvertising means sabotaging advertising / political campaigns, the encroachment of multi-national corporations on everyday life, and attacking other high profile targets. It can be considered as a process to create some awareness. the images I have uploaded below can be thought as the political forms of culture jamming. As we can see from the examples subvertising aims to subvert the intended messages of the advertisements. these subvertisings can be completely a new created image or an alteration of an existing one. and it is often done in a satirical way.

ı can say that in Turkey these political subvertising are mostly executed by the left. we can hardly ever see the right in such activities. These type of subvertisings can only be seen in social media like websites, blogs, facebook or twitter. we cannot see them on billboards or on TV because government has the power to cover them up but it is hard to control all the social media. Nevertheless they even do that.




The radio would be the finest possible communication apparatus in public life, a vast network of pipes. That is to say, it would be if it knew how to receive as well as to transmit, how to let the listener speak as well as hear, how to bring him into a relationship instead of isolating him. (Brecht, 1932)


In its original form, before the advent of television, radio was the primary media, the device which gathers the whole family who follow the program with undivided attention. Further development of the radio and intersect with new technologies has the complexity of its functionality, allowing portability, specialty programs, the opportunity to interact … New features and new possibilities of radio imposed the issue of how will radio listeners refer to the program in the future, when it, where, how and how much they will  consume it. Digital technologies contributing to increasing the number of hours which listeners devote to radio programs as a whole.

The fact that the radio program is available through the new platform, contributes to increasing the number of situations in which it can be consumed – the fact that we will be able to hear our favorite radio station program each time when we are online, or we will be able to listen radio on iPod during the shopping, expands the number of possibilities for the consumption of radio as a medium. By increasing the number of situations in which the radio program can be heard, as well as the increasing number of activities that people can do while listening to the radio, increases survive in the new media environment.

The convergence of radio and the internet has created a space to further satisfy the needs of young people, whose habits are diametrically opposed to the habits of older generations of radio listeners. The convergence of radio and the internet does not only create a new generation of media users, it creates a new generation of listeners of radio, but the radio rich dimensions that provide a new technology – interactivity, visual, speed, availability, the possibility of manipulating content.

Practice of new and converged media in fact is the perfect answer to Brecht objections  to the traditional radio – radio crossbred with the Internet is used as a two-way communication channel. Censorship and editorial control are not anymore fatal disabling to the individual who wants to offer his version of the events, his angle, his position and share it with a mass audience – with other users of the same network. The audience as a subject and as an object, were become one with interchangeable places, with common functions. Each user has their own interpretation of the truth.

The convergence of traditional media and new technologies, in particular analog radio and internet radio, redefine existing features, changing habits and expectations of traditional radio audiences, creating new opportunities for listeners and advertisers, changing radio environment, developing a national public sphere in transnational and global.

That what internet radio brings is the new way of using the old media content.




Murder King – Cultural Jamming

When we walk down the street, when we drive a car, or take a bus trip, we may be thinking that that is all there it is – us, the other people and the town (streets, road, building etc). However, there is always much more that comprises our reality, and those are the symbols, the signs which prey on us from all directions. We think we may understand them or take them as a basic messages:” Oh another McDonald’s add,” or an advertisement of a beautiful girl posing for a famous clothing or shoe brand or a picture of a well-known smiling politician surrounded with slogans that are packed with positive sayings.

That’s why the term ‘cultural jamming” came up front, meaning; “a new way of conceiving the world’ and ‘ modifiying ..popular thought and mummified popular culture.’ (Gramsci, 1971 :417). Cultural jamming carries the influence of its predecessor art movements, such as Situationists and detourement.

The most well-known type of culture jamming is subvertising. Subvertisements are creative ads targeted at various suspicious ads which advertise one thing but the truth behind the thing advertising may be different or capitalistic societies and globally well-known slogans of gigantic corporations. These slogans are ironically or satirically modified. The aim here is to get specific messages to the consumers (us) to think twice or at least get us thinking about the things we buy and consume. Also to rethink the slogans and our opinion and awareness of major global corporations that are advertising themselves just about everywhere they can.

We separate three types of cultural jamming, political, social signs and signs of our time (Internet as an alternative medium of distribution for jams). Political jams are directed against government policies or formal political actors, such as political parties; against undesirable behavior in society; or even at times against minorities in society (Bailey, O., Understanding alternative media; 140).

Political Jam: The example below borrowed from the, with the title The economists must learn to substract, shows such a anti-government and anti – economical advert. In this clip the advertisers shows the cruel opposites between the economy and the growing GDP and its effect in real life:” Every time the tree is cut the GDP goes up, every time the oil spill happens the GDP goes up, every time the cancer patient is diagnose, GDP goes up – is that how we measure our economical progress?”


Social / Cultural Jams: jams target the society, adverts, videos, films, street art etc. to show the satire, irony to get us to rethink the symbols we are used to seeing each day, so our reality of the world. Examples below target various global multi-national corporation companies’ slogans and our unstoppable desire for shopping and our obsession with it.

Finally we can talk about the The Internet as an alternative medium of distribution for jams: in a modern times Internet became indispensable for an average consumer in a developed countries, therefore Internet is important for distribution of jams and it spreads them like a virus from one community to the other.

Examples of subvertising are shown below:

In this ad a world famous golfs tiger Woods has his smile shaped into a Nike tick symbol. Suggesting maybe that big globalization firms are using famous sports people who sell themselves for the propaganda and waste money earnings.  

Very popular Burger King becomes a Murder King, questioning the substance and the quality of food  or maybe questioning the ingredients they are selling to their customers and the effect of these on their health. Can be even the cause of deadly illnesses such as cancer.

Four global multi corporation companies are satirically portrayed as an ideas driven by the capitalism.

Globaly famous Coca Cola ad, is suggesting to enjoy the capitalism that goes with it. In a sense spreading a drink is spreading a certain monopole system, ideology, economic and political view of a limited few.

Satirical advert is presenting so called “shopping human evolution”, where the straight standing consumer throw himself into a shopping spring, and ending up bend, physically smaller because of the burden of the all packages from the shopping he did. It’s the reverse biological evolution of the human species proposed by Charles Darwin in 19 c. Maybe it’s trying to show how in a way we are regression as oppose to progressing in human evolution.    


Comments below the subvertizing ads are my own interpretations of the way I see and understand these rather unique ads. Naturally, different interpretations are possible as well, I believe the aim here is to get an individual thinking and starts seeing an average images we are used to seeing on a daily basis as extraordinary, and questions it’s use.

What do you think about it? How would you interpret the ads, is there anything else you think that needs to be said here? All of you are welcome to participate…



Bailey, O. G., Cammaerts, B. and Carpentier, N. (2008) Understanding Alternative Media.

Berkshire: Open University Press – chapter 10