3, 2, 1 Record!

Television is an important medium for combining both visual and auditory components. This makes a TV product more interesting and maybe more striking than any other media. In fact, not only TV but also cinema and other types of videos which are available on the internet can be included into this classification.

It is easier to express ideas and emotions since video/film consist on both visual and auditory elements. In this aspect, this medium can be considered as an effective alternative media tool. As Fountain points out “Enabling more people to become active producers has always been one of the primary goals of many alternative media activists.” With some technological developments in film industry, more people found a chance to shoot a movie/video. At the early stages of film industry, equipments were rather expensive and hard to carry with. Developing technologies made these equipments available for any use of manner. By this way, today, anyone can easily shoot a video. However, making film/movie is not the only problem. Another important aspect of this field is distribution. A film or a video could not get much attention without being distributed to people. Thanks to the internet there are many channels available for users to share their work with other people. Many can shoot and share their video through YouTube and other video based websites.

Also mobile phones help people to shoot and share video with others. For example, if someone come across with something strange or interesting that might catch others’ attention, s/he can record it and share in just few seconds. Developing technologies permit individuals to be active producers of video and film sector. In addition, social media platforms let their users be the producer and the consumer at the same time.

In conclusion, film and video have a strong connection with the technology. Surely, not only equipment side but also distribution aspect of movie making has gone further with technological developments. Now, people carry their equipment just in their pocket and share their shootings easily.


– Fountain, A. (2007). Alternative film, video and television 1965-2005. NY: Routledge.

Community Radio as a means of Communication

Radio broadcasting can be divided into 3 categories. These are; public-service broadcasting, commercial/private broadcasting and community broadcasting. The first is usually a state supported and controlled by an authority. The second one is usually owned and controlled by an individual and advertising have a highly important place in these broadcasts as they make much of their money from advertisings. The third one, which is the community radio/broadcasting, is usually owned and controlled by small communities. Generally their aim is to provide help for the public and they aim to serve benefit for the communities where they broadcast. Community can be defined as a group of people who share common characteristics and interests. So a possible definition for the community radio can be “a radio station which is characterized by its ownership and programming and the community it is authorized to serve. It is owned and controlled by a non-profit organization whose structure provides for membership, management, operation and programming primarily by members of the community at large. Its programming should be based on community access and participation and should reflect the special interests and needs of the listenership it is licensed to serve.”

As an example for the community radio broadcasting I can give the local radio stations which I listen while I drive from one city to another. For example if you drive from Izmir to Ankara there are many small cities and towns you pass through. And you have a chance to listen their local radio channels. In most of them the radio stations you listen in the big cities do not have sufficient signal thus you have to listen their local radio stations. The most obvious difference I’ve realized in these local broadcasts is the advertisings. They just advertise their local products such the local clothing or food brands or the local restaurants and cafes. You hardly ever come across with a big or a famous brand. Sometimes unlike the other public and private broadcasts they organize some competitions and if there is a concert or a show in their city they give free tickets for them. The reason I said unlike the public and private broadcast is that, in the competitions they make, they only give free tickets or free invitation cards just in big cities like Istanbul or Ankara. But in the community radios this situation is different. Of course I do not mean the community radios in the big cities but in the small cities or towns.

Another aspect of community radios is, they usually work for to announce their audience voice to the public. If a city, a town, a district or even a school have some problems they can help them by giving the floor to the audience and make them to announce their problems. Thus they have a chance to change something and a mass of people can realize the problems after these broadcasts. For example in a university, the students utter their problems about the school administration, lessons, or foods through their community radios.

Reference: Fraser, C. & Estrada, S. R. (2001). Community Radio Handbook; Community Radio in the Broadcasting Scene. UNESCO.



In our life, there are coomunication tools which encircle our life. There are different characteristics than one another and radio is one of the tool which people use it in their daily life because it is portable and it doesn’t resembla other communication tool like Tv. Yes, we don’t see people who speak, who sing a song but we establish relations thorough voices. We imagine that for example when Dj talks about an issue. Maybe every people don’t listen radio everyday but for example, in car, in public transformation, in shopping center, in our telephone that we have chance to listen and have possibility to encourage with it. In addition to all of them, listeners who connect attachment with Dj and some programs which are regulated by radio stations. My observation is that as  people who connect radio stations or connect some radio programs to talk more than the other communication tools because I think that people feel themselves good because they have chance to share their opinions, their memories, their favorite musics to hook.

I give some informations about history of radio in Turkey. In Turkey, first radio broadcasting began in 1927 after one or two years which radio broadcasting started in the world. How it started to establish is that with building enterprise.These enterprises were called Türkiye İş Bankası and Anadolu Ajansı.  Its working method is same with BBC and today their working style continue in the same way.  ( These informations are taken from this link: http://www.cayyoluonline.com/friends/haber.php?haberid=266 ) In 1949, there was two radio transmitters in Turkey. In 1949 November, Istanbul radio station begun to broadcasting. Also, ITÜ which started its broadcasting in 1946. (These informations are taken from this link http://www.yazarkafe.com/icerik/305000/turkiyede-radyo-ve-televizyonun-gecmisi.htm)

In this link which shows that  the first radio broadcasting in Turkey in 6 May 1927 . It was at the same time spoken in French language. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EB8wIR6RA40)

Now, I give short informations about weeks article. One of them is Community Radio which is written by Peterç M. Lewis. This article is about Montreal Conference and what this article was penetrated that how community radio emerged and which time it holded a place in our life in some countries. Pacifia Foundation was one of the first moment of community radio and community radio which is referred as reaction to the radio of its own country in this article. Also, language of community radio is different from offical one. There are some countries which are examined in terms of community radio. One of them is Kenya.  Homa Bay who managed and take into account develop communication infrastructure according to local people and their needs. On the other hand, in Bologna, Radio Alice which is use of live telephoned reports from listeners. The example of community radio is also feminist radio which hugely relate with women’s lifestyle so according to these article I have chance to see that how community radio was developed all over the world, how it hold a place in people life and continue its works in todays life.

The other article which also penetrates Community Radio at the beginning of the 21 century. It starts with the Community Radio in US. The Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) and National Telecommunication Information Act ( NTIA) which put mechanisms for standardisation of stations. In this article, I see that community radio didn’t emerge coincidentally because there were some events like Baby Boomer, Reagan years and also there are some minority groups effect to shape community radio. What these minorities are African American, Hispanic, and Native Americans. In Western Europe, BBC model is applied and the important thing is that establishment of community radio in 1970s and 1980s. Also, in this article, Community Radio in 1974 and Community Public Radio in 1999 were investigated under some criteria in terms of governance, origination, format, funding, audience and identity. According to these table, undoubtedly, differences are seen and meanings, functions of them change also with effecting of commercial radio.

If I evaluate todays condition behalf of radio, with the improvement of technology, which effects expanding broadcasting network, which means that wherever we live, we stand, we have chance to reach radio which doesn’t only means we listen radio but also radio stations which have agenda and set some programs, ıt has news programmes and call some people like academician, like singer, like psychologist, like actors to talk about every issue to give knowledges to people who listen them. In addition to them, radio stations which address not only big cities but also local people. Yes, some of them establish and reach all parts of the Turkey like PowerTürk, Kral Fm, Trt Fm but on the other side some radio stations which are established in specific borders and don’t address whole Turkish people. For example; Radyo Ege which addresses to people who live in Aegean area;  Radyo Mercan, Radyo Akdeniz which addresses to people who live in Antalya;  Radyo 5, Radyo Bursa which addresses to people who live in Bursa. There are many examples of these radio stations from all parts of Turkey. (I learn some of these radio stations from this link. http://www.sinemamuzik.com/HaberDetay.aspx?HaberID=6286) Their common characteristic is that regulate their program contents according to local people. In addition, we listen radio everywhere but with entering Internet to our life we listen radio thorough online. We have chance to comment through their social media account. For my opinion, radio is special communication tool,  even if we don’t see people who speak or sing a song , we imagine and this characteristic of radio is depart itself from other communication tool and I think that people who establish cosy relationship with speaker, Dj or other person.

In conclusion, radio which was long history in our life, it was so crucial communication tool in the past before television and technology was  enter to our lifes but today maybe its number of target audience decrease according to my observation because people have fast life, they use mobile phones for communication and it substitudes and manipulates our communication style, communication processes and also communication vehicles are effected so many people who don’t prefer listening radio in their daily life and because of this reason radio loses its importance but for my opinion radio provides people to talk more , share their ideas with other people who don’t see, don’t react or don’t answer to them, maybe this characteristic effect peoples preference to not listen radio but for my opinion attachment with radio is so special for followers or listeners of radio than other communication tools.

Community Radio as a means of Communication

It will be a deepening discussion while focusing on communication’s reasons. “Whats” of communication and “Hows” of communication replaced to reasons(“why”) of communication. In this case, most of the scholars mention that those reasons quite related to the identification process of the audiences. In other words, a need of defining themselves in the current society and their own communities encourage people to be part of several communication paterns in order to express themselves.

Alternative media provides wider opportunites for people to express themselves rather than mainstream media. For instance, Radio Popolare made interviews with the local people in Milan in May 1977 during and after the riot. An interpretation of what happened takes shape from the contributions of the different people involved. Each person is asked for their political analysis…So, things happen during the day on the streets and are discussed at night on the radio.(Lewis, 1984)

Algan examines social role of the local radio in Sanliurfa, which is located in the poor rural south-eastern part of Turkey, for Turkish youth.She focuses on why the local commercial radio stations in Sanliurfa functions as alternative media for the Turkish youth and how they cross and transform the boundary between the ‘media’ and‘ordinary’ worlds to create a space for themselves.(Algan, 2005)  She argues that in traditional Turkish culture, unmarried young people have very littlesay in issues that matter to them and have no power over their education, jobs or marriage decisions. Respect for elders requires that a young person must not even talk back to his/her father. However, talk radio offers them much needed liberation by functioning as a discursive space in which tocriticize societal norms without the surveillance of the dominant group,families and their fathers.(Algan, 2005)

Expression is what we do in daily life. We express ourselves to everyone we engage during the day via language, our clothes, our facial expressions, our gestures and etc. While we express ourselves, we also express the elements that compose our identity. In other words, when we have need to express our thoughts we also have a need to express certain/varied elements from our identity.



Lewis, P. (1984) “Community Radio: The Montreal Conference and after”, in Media, Culture and Society, vol. 6, pp. 137-150.

Algan, E.(2005) “The role of Turkish local radio in theconstruction of a youth community”, in The Radio Journal – International Studies in Broadcast and Audio Media Vol.6 Number 2, pp. 75-92 http://www.academia.edu/171111/The_role_of_Turkish_local_radio_in_the_construction_of_a_youth_community

The Volunteer Aspect of The Underground Press

When we look at the underground press, volunteer labor plays an important role. As the sources are limited and small money in the sector, it is almost impossible to pay an avarage wage to the labor. That is the reason why, underground press provides its labor from volunteers.


Having volunteer has economical advantages for sure. However, it also has a lot of disadvantages. First of all, it is hard to find a qualified labor who took certain, neccessary training or/and had enough experience in the current field. Those volunteers are mostly young people who wants to get some experience and do not have a lot of financial obligations or people who already have current jobs but want to get involved in underground press because of their worldview/interests. In both sides, working volunteerly as a part of underground press definitely related to their world view. If you do not share the similar perspective with the underground press that you are part of, it is hard to work for it volunteerly. As a result, it is essential to determine your target audience as they are and will be your volunteers as well. Instead of gaining a wider readership, actually led to a decline in circulation , since many of the potential audience felt that their sectional interests were already better served by specialist publications that concentrated in grater detail on particular area. (Khiabany, G. 2000) In other words, in underground press sector, you need to have specific worldview, specific target audience who share the similar worldview with your press. After you recruit your volunteers, it is the first step in order to make them feel that they are not just working for your press but they can use your press as a chanel to express themselves.


Second of all, another disadvantages of having volunteer labor is, you can not be sure from the sustainability. As they are not tied to your underground press economically, it is understandable if they decide to move on from different field. For this case, it is important to have a certain person who is responsible from the volunteers. As a result, this person can observe the involvement process of the volunteers and strengthen volunteers’ ties by using certain methods like one-to-one discussions to get feedback as well as setting new goals for them in order to keep them still interested in the subject. Of course, it will help to broaden the horizons of the volunteers to keep them in the organization. However, I believe giving different job descriptions also very crucial. For a volunteer, it is important to enjoy and improve her/his potentials. If a certain person does same things, first it may seem interesting to learn and challange themselves but after a while, it becomes monotone and not very enjoyable. That’s why, periodicly shifting the vacancies and encouring volunteers to work in different areas will make them enthusiactic to stay more in the underground press.


In conclusion, it is  hard to run a underground press as the sources are scarce. However, using different strategies will help the organization to figure out what they should not do and what they should do by making mistakes. Making mistakes is not a fault but making same mistakes again and again and not learning from them is not realistic and rationalistic.



Khiabany, G. (2000) “Red Pepper: a New Model for the Alternative Press?”, in Media, Culture and Society, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 447-463






Radio Favela – indispensable community radio

An interesting story coming from a small poor town named Aglomerado da Serra in Belo Horizonte in Brazil where a group of young black men in the beginning of 1980’s with the help of money given by one of boy’s mother to establish rather primitive radio station with a poor infrastructure. They named it FAVELA, which actually is a name for a slum, poor places filled with violence, drug dealing, murders etc. their aim was to connect people from the slum, to fight against violence and to stop drug dealing.

Furthermore, radio station turned out to become indispensable tool for the community that fought against poverty, severe electrical cuts, no running water and more. Favela radio station became a medium helping to locate missing children, calling ambulances for the injured and ill, locating the families, giving information for important issues. Even hospitals were sending the information about the victims of the accidents and attacks because they were not able to reach the family members other way.

Naturally, Radio Favela as a pirate radio station underwent many repression and attacks from the government police. One of Radio Favela’s founder Misael Avellino des Santos was arrested seven times, beaten and torture by a police. The police twice completely destroyed the radio station and even tried to connect the founders of the radio to a drug dealings and murders. After each collision, Radio Favela came back, mostly with the money collected from the local community, and the fight for radio’s existence continued for the next 23 years.

But why was the local government so intimidated by a rudimental radio station in one of many Brazilian favelas hiding up in the mountains? What was so powerful about the Favela Radio station that many saw it as a threat?

Radio Favela I think it’s a wonderful example of a community radio, young black boys started up a radio station that filled in so very necessary connection and help to the poor society they came from. That is exactly where the Brazilian government failed. Radio Favela was established with a rather modest financial input, yet because of its location up in the mountains it was accessible to variety of societies in a nearby cities, it soon became very popular among poor and also middle class. Favela was completely autonomous,   if anything government police was for years strongly opposing the Radio station and its founders. Furthermore, Radio Favela’s one and only main goal was to serve the community, being a voice, a medium of this community and therefore had no profit in goal intentionsListeners were not only supporters they were in a way Radio Favela, if they needed an ambulance they called the radio, if they wanted to talk to their friends and family, they called the radio, Radio Favela accepted over 500 calls all without censorship, calling to the Radio Favela meant connecting directly to the entire community.  Local music, local artists and community issues had always  the on air privilege before the national or international news. Radio Favela went even further, they hosted educational programs informing people about the cancer, their civil rights, women were informed about their rights against domestic violence, health, voting etc. in sum, Radio Favela gave their community more than the government education, police and media ever did. Because of all that, Radio Favela is a golden example of a community radio that no matter how many times it was shut down, destroyed, people suffering…it always came back, because it was so greatly needed by the favela’s community, people’s identity and their sense of belonging and gratefulness that someone did care about them and their existence.

Constant struggle, all the good the Radio Favela’s establishers  didn’t go unrecognized. After 20 years of day to day struggle Radio Favela got national and international attention. In February 1999 it was a cover story on Wall Street Journal, in 1998 it was the only Brazilian radio invited to the prestige Congress of Community Radios in Milan (Italy),  finally in 2001 it got a government permission, and the movie was shot in 2003 with the title Uma onda no ar ( A wave in the air).

Radio continues to exist today, it is more popular than ever, having nearly 4 million listeners, it has proved to itself and to the world that representing the community with no matter how modest means you may have as long as it is accessible to others, as long as context serves the listeners and as long as it connects and gives life to the community around it, a great changes can be made, the good will not go unrecognized.






Old Fashion, New Trend: Radio

As a mass communication tool, radio has a great importance for informing people in an accurate way. In comparison with newspaper, most people think that radio is much more credible. The reason for this, with radio, people can listen speeches by hearing speaker’s own voice; this characteristic of radio makes it more credible medium than newspaper. In addition, with radio, news and events could be broadcasted more quickly. Given the fact that a radio channel can sustain it streaming constantly, people can hear about flash news as they happen. These aspects of radio makes it valuable and indispensable medium in the eyes of both audiences’ and publishers’.

Most of the people may think that the internet and the television pushes radio out of audiences’ area of interest. In some ways it is true, because with the developing technology, people can access to the internet no matter where they are. Connecting to the internet became so easy that, when people wish to hear about the latest events, the first place which they look is the internet. However, many people still go on to listen to radio while they drive, cook or work. According to some researches, which were conducted in Turkey, people see radio “as a friend” and 71% of the participants said they listen to radio regularly. In my opinion, the reason that makes radio so popular among audience, is that they can get along with their work while they are listening to radio. According to me this is the most remarkable characteristic of radio; anyone could not be able to  cook, drive or work while s/he is watching television or reading newspaper but, they can do all of these activities while they are listening to radio. That’s to say, radio is still one of the most preferred media among people. Houses without television or the internet connection can keep up with the latest events with radio, instantly. So far, I can summarize radio as a cheap, instant, credible and widespread medium.

Developing technology give people chance to establish their own local radio stations. Hence, people who does not have sufficient funds to establish a television channel can establish a radio station. No doubt that establishing and sustaining a radio station is cheaper than a television channel. For example, in Turkey there are 1087 radio channels and 258 TV channels. However, thanks to the party in power, many radio stations and TV channels are experiencing some problems; their streams are being paused or their channels are being closed. In this sense, the internet comes forward leaving radio behind; because it is hard to monitor and follow the sources of digital publications in contrast with radio or television. Shortly, the internet gives more independence in a strict political environment compared to other types of media.

In conclusion, although the radio can be considered as “old” compared to the newly delevoped technologies, many people still go on to listen to it. With the emergence of television, radio became a little bit disfavored; however, it is one of the indispensable media even in today.


– http://www.rtuk.org.tr/sayfalar/icerikgoster.aspx?icerik_id=a66f3657-d2a8-486c-a1c4-893c583f0c29

– http://www.turkmedya.tv/sector.php?Type=sectorDetail&NewID=26450&SecID=14


Underground media aims to show alternative way. Because it reflects some spesific ideology. So we can say that there is freedom of speech in underground media. However it is important to think about this question: “Alternative to what?” In my opinion it is alternative to current, general stuation in the world. For example; Feminist ideology is a alternative to patriarchal system in the world. Or communist ideology is an alternative of capitalist system. Therefore these ideologies has been reflected through underground media.
When we think about Turkey, we can see a lot of exaples of underground press. Some newspapers such as, Cumhuriyet, Zaman, Taraf, Sözcü etc…All of these reflects one spesific ideolojy. For example, Cumhuriyet newspaper is a Left-wing newspaper. So that reason it criticise AKP’s policies.
Not only press but also there is a lot of examples from television channels about underground media. Such as Samanyolu TV, Kanal 7, Ulusal TV or Cem TV. All these can be examples of it. Let’s think about Cem TV. This Channel represents Alevis in Turkey. On the other hand it has Kemalist ideology and reflects that. Ulusal TV is also reflects Kemalist ideology. However when we look at Samanyolu and Kanal 7,we can see both has relegious ideology. Especially Kanal 7 broadcasts some relegious programs.
In conclusion; Turkey has a lot of examples of underground media. Because when we think about the structure of Turkey, we can see a lot of different ideologies; there are rightist, leftist, kurds, alevis, jewish, feminist, etc… It keeps a lot of ideologies so it is no doubt that must be represented through media organs.

Alternative media, alternative way



Harry Fear, he and his work are example of my case study. Who is he, and what his work is?

Palestina, Izrael, conflict are still here, still there, sixty five years. Maybe it’s time to put that in history books, not in front page of some newspaper.

To be neutral, or to be part of truth is to be alternative or to make alternative.

Today,  ‘everybody’  know about big loby of Israel on each corner in the world, and  big influence of Israel on global mainstream media. But in this situation, we have also some kind of influence on media from Arab countries. Also we can say that we have some ‘neutral’ mainstream media who presenting ‘neutral’ information for ‘all’. In any case, in my view, only way for truth is alternative media, or Harry Fear in this situation. But when I said ‘truth’, that doesn’t mean that I believe in a hundred percent of truth from any kind of media today. Because, one percent is there to always ask for more alternative, and for more truth. But, ninety nine percent is enough for brain preparing to accept that information.

Let’s talk about ‘ninety nine percent of truth’, let’s talk about Harry Fear. Harry Fear is independent journalist,  some people calling him ‘conflict reporter’.  One of the big reason why he decide to be alternative, to be volunteers journalist, is because mainstream media doesn’t give us truth about what’s happening in Gaza. He saw that nobody else doesn’t presenting, giving information trought non stream media in serious way about situation in Gaza.  Some western media do not show pictures of children who die every day, do not give the exact number of fatalities, they are not willing or that is not part of their agenda to be at the right place at the right time. And this is not the case only with the situation in Gaza, it is so in most cases.

Harry Fear don’t have powerful mainstream tv channel, but he has a powerful non mainstream tv channel http://harryfear.tv    or youtube channel. Other his powerful alternative media weapons are his facebook profile https://www.facebook.com/harryfear?fref=ts with twenty-six thousand subscribers , his facebook page https://www.facebook.com/officialharryfear?fref=ts, and website http://www.harryfear.co.uk/. Because ‘the right place at the right time’ a lot of mainstream media are used his source to get some information.  When we look at all of his live streams, movies, statements, we might think he is too biased. We might think he’s on the side of the Palestinians. But maybe that’s because we are all in some way on the side of  the mainstream media, or on the west side, or the side of the half truths, or often on the side of untruth. And the normal is that when we get out of the dark of manipulation of the mainstream media, the truth becomes too bright, it can even make us blind, but this is actually ability to see, because we were blind before, but now we get the truth, the vision.

World need more ‘conflict reporters’, more journalist volunteers, the truth, world need non stream or alternative media. More alternative media, more truth, and less lies and manipulation of mainstream media. Lots of lies often contributes and support  many deaths of innocent civilians, especially in conflicts such as in Gaza. So we all have a duty to fight with lies, to fight for the truth, to fight for humanity. My opinion is that one way of fighting for humanity are trough alternative media.

What UnderGround Press is?


I firstly begin with the meaning of underground press then I give some examples of journals which are associate with underground press, as I talk about them I give way articles of under ground press . If I think about meaning of underground press, it includes freedom of speech, free to write opinions to become independent without seeing limitations and restrictions.Actually, it is war of thinking because it shows alternative to right and digress what traditional media penetrates issues and manipulates people to think in one way especially in traditional media, it isn’t possible to react, or produce counter opinions because they can’t allow people to think in other way. I think that if  I talk about underground press, it is shaped according to some specific opinions, ideologies, counter thoughts like journals of leftist or right, like feminists who defend women rights to men, like environmentalists who call people to take care their environment,to take precautions for global warming, like university students who oppose to political hands, like trade unions who want to establish their rights to powerfuls but the important thing to establish, undoubtedly people who participate in this area is so crucial because many of them work voluntarily because of limited budget and it is so crucial to hold people in one place in terms of good management.

If we look at Turkey, yes there are some examples of them, they try to survive towards many problems such as economic and political or social. What my examples are; Kurtuluş Sosyalist Dergi which was start to publish at 2001 and its main purpose is to create communist working class , defend rights of working class and generally accentuates difference of communist ideas. In its publication, also they hold a place elections, politic crises, Kurdish issue, democratic issue of working class, globalization, capitalism etc so it continue to its existence today(I take these informations from     http://kurtulussosyalistdergi.awardspace.com/index.htm) The other example about underground press from Turkey is Pazartesi Journal. Its target audience is that women. This journal was started to publish at 1995 and it provided material support from Frauenansiftung, which is established in Germany. Why I hold a place its journal is that because its contents depend on feminist opinions and try to provide support of feminist movement by women . It includes that women’s lip. Its purpose is that defend womens right to men and aggrieve hegemony of men in a harsly way. ( I have an idea about this journal from  http://www.pazartesidergisi.com/index.html ) Undoubtedly, there are many journals but some of them that I give place because they separate from other fashion or cooking journals with its ideologies, and visions.

My last example about underground  press is caricatur journals. In Turkey, especially Leman, and Penguen which are humorous type of journal.Their purpose is to react decision of political hand in terms of economy, education, health, environment etc. These humorous journals are independent. Their  first purpose isn’t to purchase money but they show their reactions and I think that they are voices of people who don’t react situations of Turkey in a freely way, I think that many people who read Leman and Penguen support and encourage themselves to talk about issues, problems in Turkey in their daily life. (http://www.google.com.tr/search?hl=tr&safe=active&q=leman%20dergisi%20tepki&psj=1&bav=on.2,or.r_qf.&biw=1366&bih=667&um=1&ie=UTF8&tbm=isch&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi&ei=5_9FUdW-A7TE4gTw8YGwAQ#imgrc=l4vWyUii6EXgpM%3A%3B-0t-IjcF-lBJPM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Ffotogaleri.haber7.com%252Finner%252F%252F749320110802111649218.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.haber7.com%252Fdergiler%252Fhaber%252F769834-leman-korkusunu-kapak-yapti%3B493%3B574) : In this link, we see that how our ruling part has which type on ideology on military men so these are examples about underground press.

Now, I shortly give way to some articles from our syllabus.I The first article which is written by Gholam Khiabany and it is called Red Pepper. It is montly magazine but what its difference is that it takes hand leftist opinion and it is advanced by Comedia and it  was placing itself within an influential current of left political thinking in Britain.( It is taken from article) Also, in this article an author who deals with  the other publication which is called The Socialist and which is shaped in terms of Socialist Movement but the most important thing is that author who holds a place that Income and Expenditure of journal and financial problems. As I read all of them, it isn’t easy to manage this type of journal because it should be plan to regulate budget. On the other hand, I see that the importance of advertising in terms of income so what I want to summarize about this article is that yes Red Pepper and The Socialist try to survive for their ideologies and fights with some problems in terms of financial difficulties. On the other hand, the article which is called ‘The Alternative Press’ penetrates alternatives which means variety kinds of magazines which has different contents like hippy magazines. Also, in this article, there are issues which are penetrared in this sector like economic and modes of organization and production and audience. In modes of organization, division of labour, budgeting, planing is so crucial. In audience issue, not only content but also readers, their  educational background, their interest should be thought. In addition to all of them, two magazines are examined which are called New Socialist and New Internationalist and what their differences are that New Socialist which is for Labour Party activists and Labour Movement and on the other hand New Internationalist which is specialist publication and it takes hand development issues so I want to summarize that how these two articles takes into account in terms of alternative press.

In conclusion, I explain firstly meaning of underground press for me and give alternative journals in Turkey and then I shortly summarize two articles. In Turkey, some journals try to survive, perpetuate their ideologies . It is so difficult in Turkey because of political hands but the other issues to continue alternative press is not only budget but also people who are writer gather around in same place is not easy task but I think that the most important characteristic of these alternative journals are to show people that different kinds of issue with different points of view and show varieties for our lifes because it isn’t possible to develop ourselves with traditional media so every people should be this type of journals to have an idea, to learn what is going on about events, people and our lifes but in today condition, it opens to discussion that how many journals take an action independently in terms of their ideologies or opinions through the world ? or how many years that political hands allow them to continue their publications?