Agenda-setting causes the spiral of silence

Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann ,who is a political scientist, thought that the spiral of silence is not thought without the agenda-setting theory.She believed that public opinion is shaped by the helping of the media. As a result of this, the people in the societies shape their thoughts according to the media and Media is the strongest tool between these two theories according to her (which are agenda setting and spiral of silence)

And in my opinion she is right because agenda setting means to determine the journal.And while media was determining the journal at the same time it emphasized the sound of the majority. Alternative thoughts or minorities are not found any place for themselves in this process and all these things create the spiral of silence.Individulas started to think according to the majority because of fear of isolation and exclusion.

If we give an example from the past;Hitler was convinced the German nation that they are the most powerful race in the world by using the media tools of that period.Some people believed this situation but some of them although did not believe,they keep quiet because of fear of hitler’s management and fear of isolation.They convinced this case.

Media Effects

Turkey devastated by the quake last week which showed Turkish solidarity to the world once more. Allowing for the last week’s topic, I would like to mention about two projects in which the society participated substantially. In the weekdays of last week, there was a live program stream jointly broadcast on two rival channels concurrently. The theme was based on collecting donations to the victims of the earthquake in eastern Turkey. The result was huge, thanks to many people collectively participated into this program. This case shows us TV is maybe the most crucial medium to attract people’s attention and make them contribute at hard times.
The second project was a rock concert, called ‘Rock for Van’. There have been speculations that even people abroad or non-Turkish citizens bought the tickets in order to contribute to the victims even though they might have gone to the concert place.
Turkey’s agenda is changing so constantly that one day we cry for the trapped people, one day we lose ourselves in trifling issues. At this point, the media is the tool to circulate happenings; but, on the other hand, also a kind of authority to shape our sentiments and the way we reason ourselves and the world.

Agenda Setting

Media do not tell us what to think, they tell us what to think about. Mass media which can be a newspaper, a book and television takes control of the information that we see or hear.

These are the levels of agenda setting theory:

First Level: Media uses objects or issues to influence the people what people should think about.
Second level: Media focuses on the characters of issues how people should think about. The main concept associated with the agenda setting theory is gate keeping. Gate keeping controls over the selection of content discussed in the media; Public cares mostly about the product of a media gate keeping. It is especially editors media itself is a gatekeeper.
Priming: Activity of the media in proposing the values and standards by which objects of the media attention can be judged. Media’s content will provide a lot of time and space to certain issues, making it more vivid.
To say in simple words, Media is giving utmost importance to news so that it gives people the impression that is the most important information. This is done everyday the particular news is carried as a heading or covered everyday for months.
Framing: Framing is a process of selective control. Framing talks about how people attach importance to certain

It is the fact that mass media become more powerful on the masses nowadays. For this reason, agenda setting statement enhanced and ‘how’ part is included to the definition. Thus media may also tell us how and what to think about it. Perhaps even what to do about it.

Agenda Setting Example: Actions surrounding the O.J. case and the Clinton Scandal are both excellent examples of Agenda-Setting in action.  During these historic events, the media was ever-present.  The placement of full page, color articles and top stories on news programming made it clear that Americans should place these events as important issues.  Some people believed O.J. was guilty, and others believed he was innocent.  Some believed Clinton should have been impeached, and others thought otherwise.  Therefore, the media wasn’t extremely successful in telling us what to think on these issues, but most Americans did believe these were both important issues for a long period of time.


Propaganda & Cinema

Propaganda is one of the most important tool for the media since the past, because interest groups in society has used it mostly. For example, in the 1935 Leni Rihefenstahl shooted the film which is called Triumph Des Willnes. this film is about propaganda and the significance of this film came from the using camera style according the propaganda technique. I mean that the aim of this film manipulating mass publics so this is also shows us direct means of control in the media.

Media Effect on Body Image

Media effect was our last week’s topic and we discussed how it effects, also what it effects.
Now, i want to mention about media effect on body image, i think that it is one of the most important effects of media on individuals and also on society.

We meet how we should look like every moment of our lives on newspapers, magazines, internet, TVs… Moreover, advertisements are everywhere, streets, buses, taxis, cafes, restaurants, toilets.. all of these present us perfect body images. Especially most of them are about women, however in recent years, media create handsome, strong men images. But in this article i want to state that body images of women in media, because it continues for a long time so we know lots of things effects of this images.

When we look at women images, we will see they are thin, beatiful, sexy, fashionable. They are really different than avarage women. You can see some statistics about this topic on video. The women who see perfect women images every moment are not pleased their appearance. İn conclusion, women want to look like thinner and it was the basic problem that causes eating disorders, like anorexia. Their perception of body is distructed and they always perceive their body is fat. Also, they are losing their self-esteems, because they believe that they always look like more beatiful, more sexy, more fashinable, more and more.

If you google, you will see many campaigns and projects to create healty women images in media.

Violence in the Media and its Effects on Children

Violance in the Media and its Effects on Children

With the lack of parental communication about what children watch on TV, children may develop a wrong perception of reality. This video is about violence in the media and how media can cause negative effects on children.
In my opinion parents should watch Tv with their children or supervise them about what to watch.It is better to inform children about the difference between fiction and the real world.Children imitate almost everything what they see around them.Today television and internet made media influence more wide spread, video games contains more violent ever than before,almost sadistic.Parental guidance plays a crucial role to lower these affects.



How we understand the “Opinion Leader”?

In today’s world, firstly in communication, opinion leaders have fundamental importance. Believe or not, we usually get under influence by them, or refuse them without conscious. There too many studies about our listening attitudes toward “Opinion Leaders”. Briefly, we can consider some of them as a reference to understand this concept. 


One of them is the Washington Post‘s study named “Opinion Leaders: Circle of Influence.” In this study, it examines Opinion Leaders  as the filters of ideas and information. Also, it supports that “Each industry, issue, interest and ideology has its own opinion leaders. They are change agents and active media users. Opinion leaders engage with the media where their ideas are spread to the wider world of those who care about the industry, issue, interest or ideology.” You can reach the full study by clicking here.


Another study can be found by The Yale School of Management named “Do we listen to Opinion Leaders”. In this study, it examines and explains some researchs and empirical testing of Opinion Leader concept. Briefly; this study analyse the research in the summer of 2001 that the toymaker Hasbro launced a new handheld videogame called P-O-X. As part of the introduction of the game, Hasbro hired a marketing firm to create a vireal word-of-mouth campaign. Marketers used surveys to find the coolest kids in Chicago and then seeking to harness their influence. They gave those kids samples of the game to hand out to their friends. The campaign was a success. Because the cool kids love P-O-X and withing a few weeks Hasbro had sold one million units. You can reach the full study by clicking here.

Lastly, there is a basic video about how we should understand the the term of “Opinion Leader” in communication context. The video recorded by The University of Baltimore and Towson University Business Administration School. To watch the video, please click here.

The Effect of Media and the Cause of Violence: The result is the transformation of ‘Innocent People’

According to ‘Lowery and Defleur(1995)US Surgeon General’.
The practical issue of media effects identified by the violence and agression portrayed in content has been the object of so much research that it requires to be treated separetly at this point. The kinds of effect that are generally suspected are mainly of an unintended and short-term character, although longer terms consequences in the way of behaviour patterns and cultural change are also possible. In its earliest days media research was strongly driven by the search for evidence of harm to young people from the frequent representation of crime and agression. Each new popular medium has given rise to a new wave of alarm about its possible effects.
Television content is heavily saturated with violence and children are spending more and more time exposed to violent content. Overall, the evidence supports the htpothesis that the viewing of violent entertainment increases the likelihood of agressive behaviour.
I think that the violence spreads out consistently by aid of media’s effect. When we look news on TV, we can see in many countries, children attack schools or murder their professor or schoolmates. For example in 2007, in U.S a student murdered 32 other students in Virginia Technical University. When we see this we are paralyzed. According to this we can understand how media has power on children. They can affect easily by a film or by news to create a virtual world in their mind. Moreover there are many elements of media that children can be affected by. For example, in cartoons the violence is very disturbing. There are always some people who fight each other or rake with guns so this directs children to do something bad. The most important question is why this harm makes them happy and how the television helps to create this area?

Media Effects

Radio Days is a very good example for the stimulus-response model according to the messages which was given by the radio and the reactions and feelings of the peoples to the radio messages. Radio Days talks about the golden age period of the radio when the television didn’t hit its mark in that term yet. The film shows the radio effects through the middle-class family. These effects are mostly about the everyday life. The family members accompanied the songs which played on the radio and then sometimes they started to dreaming when they listened a story from the radio and they are also sad and happy at the same time during the listening the news. When they listened good news they are so happy but they can be also unhappy too. For example in the film the little girl fall into the pit and the radio informed to the listeners about this event and at the end the little girl did not found alive although all the pursuits. And also the listeners felt nervous, excited and unhappy because there was war in that years and the radio also informed about the war. All these things show that the radio and the people’s relation connected and interacted with each other. Radio was the only media device in that years and it included an important place of the society. The voice of the radio filled the spaces of the radio listener’s life. Their feelings, point of views about the life and these kinds of things were shaped and effected by the radio.

Good night, and good luck tells about the media life. This film argues the duties and functions of the television and also the television workers and it tries to search and shows the answers of these questions; what is the purpose of the television and how the broadcasting should be done. According to the this film, the television just a luminous cable box if it is not working in a good manner and if it makes just one sided broadcasting because of special benefits. At the end of the film Edward Murrow who is a very famous television journalist and announcer said that about the television; this instrument can teach, it can illuminate; yes, and it can even inspire. but it can do  so only to the extent that humans are determined to use it to those ends. Otherwise it is merely wires and lights in a box. Good night, and good luck.

As far as we understood that the influence of the media is very important on the individuals since the past and it seems that it will be more important in the future.

Radio Days trailer:

Good night, and good luck trailer:

Hypodermic Needle Theory Istanbul Pogrom 6–7 September 1955

  • According to “hypodermic needle theory”, mass media had a direct, immediate and powerful effect on its audiences.
  •  The mass media could influence a very large group of people directly and uniformly by ‘injecting’ them with appropriate messages designed to trigger a desired response.
  • There is powerful and direct flow of information from the sender to the receiver.
  • The hypodermic needle model suggests that media messages are injected straight into a passive audience which is immediately influenced by the message.
  • The receiver or audience is powerless to resist the impact of the message. There is no escape from the effect of the message in these models.


Istanbul Pogrom  was a  pogrom directed primarily at Istanbul’s Greek minority on 6–7 September 1955.  The events were triggered by the false news that the Turkish consulate inThessaloniki, north Greece—the house where Mustafa Kemal Atatürk had been born in 1881—had been bombed the day before. A bomb planted by a Turkish usher at the consulate, who was later arrested and confessed, incited the events. The Turkish press conveying the news in Turkey was silent about the arrest and instead insinuated that Greeks had set off the bomb.


A protest rally on the night of September 6, organized by the authorities in Istanbul, on the Cyprus issue and the bombing of Atatürk’s home was the cover for amassing the rioters. At 13:00, news reports of the bombing were announced by radio However, most people at the time did not have radios, so they had to wait until 16:30, when the daily İstanbul Ekspres, which was associated with the Demokrat Parti National Security Service(NSS), repeated the news in print.İstanbul Ekspres  printed 300,000 copies (on paper stocked in advance), of which 296,000 were sold. This was far above the newspaper’s average circulation of 30,000–40,000 (by comparison, the best-selling Hürriyet sold 70–80 thousand copies.

At 17:00, the pogrom started in Taksim Square, and rippled out during the evening through the old suburb of Beyoglu  (Pera), with smashing and looting of Greek commercial property, particularly along Yüksek Kaldırım street. By six o’clock at night, many of the Greek shops on Istanbul’s main shopping street, İstiklal Avenue  were ransacked. The material damage was considerable, with damage to 5317 properties, almost all Greek-owned. Among these were 4214 homes, 1004 businesses, 73 churches, 2 monasteries, 1 synagogue, and 26 schools. Over 4,000 Greek-owned businesses, 110 hotels, 27 pharmacies, 23 schools, 21 factories, 73 Greek (and other Christian) churches and over a thousand Greek-owned homes were badly damaged or destroyed.The American consulate estimates that 59% of the businesses were Greek-owned, 17% were Armenian-owned, 12% were Jewish-owned, 10% were Muslim-owned; while 80% of the homes were Greek-owned, 9% were Armenian-owned, 3% were Jewish-owned, and 5% were Muslim-owned