community radio versus commercial one( week 5 alternative radio)

Since alternative media understanding in progress alternative/community radio broadcasting has always been thought as important part of it in addition to alternative press.Of cource as finance, format structure,governance, process or settlement part are different from mainstream-proffesional radio broadcasting.Naturally there are also differences among United States community radio broadcasting and the ones in Europe or in Latin America but in roots their aims more or less same.Reaching particular communities, minorities, repressed groups, create voice about feminism, different sexual tendencies, reaching particular racial-ethnic groups or distribute different tastes of political beliefs, musical stuffs or world views-news are can be considered as their common targets no matter where that community radio broadcasting takes a place in world.But to summarize main difference among Us and Euraope in basic we can say by looking at the article of David Dunaway : ‘ North American stations founded on a philosophy of open access,amateurism, and direct service are today retooling themselves to sere larger audiences by beefing up their marketing skills and staff.In Europe , community stations seem to be exploring the North American community radio model at the moment when many US stations are forced to abondon it for more commercial formats.’This is just like role replacement among them.Moreover  slipping to commercial formats is very dangerous for basic structure of community radio because it is against to it’s soul and mentality.Community radio is seeking primarily to put front what is stayed behind as values, beliefs, habity, lifestyles, views and more instead of putting to first floor the things like profits, high elevel incomes or big advertising jobs.Furthermore it is not just about geographical differences but also time differences because there are serious diversities among 1970’s-1980’s and 90’s.Lets compare 1974 and 1999.In  1974 as governance we see anarchosyndicalism but in 1999 there is hierarchy as proffesionals are supervising proffesionals.In 70’s while it is largely local, in 90’s largely national-international.As a format we had seen eclectic, patchwork, folk, freeform,radical free speech, we saw in 90’s consistent, streamed programs ,liberal-unexcepttionable structure.In 1974 we encounter with as funding ;local , grassroots donations, help of local institutions but in 90’s national help,local underwriting declining federal/state funds.While we see identity as local, responsive freewheeling, amateur station loyalty access in 70’s, ın 1999 we see regional structure,marketable, proffesionalist program loyalty and production values.Taxes, having licence agreements, state’s donation-fund cuts or income cuts are parts of community-alternative radio broadcasting and moreover if we consider this radio understanding is closer to left side more  and then we see right political side and conservative groups can be enemy for community-alternative radio broadcasting since they try to labelling them as marginal-extreme ,harmful producers for society.Community radio is perceiving it’s audience mass as also producer, opinion source, sometimes volunteer workers, fund-donation providers their board subscribers and many more. This is the proof of also their non-hierarchical but horizontal structure or producements and progress too.Maybe 1970’s can be called as era of experiment and test, 80’s are more radical times and with 1990’s we see more chancing structure and understanding as they are skipping to being  more proffesional settlement and commercial understanding to survive.

Beyond feminism in the women community radios

In 2014 the Bristol based community radio Ujima Radio aired a show ´Women on the Waves´ as a look back on women in broadcasting from Bristol´s FEM FM  until the present time. FEM FM was one of the first solely female radio station in Britain, as said by Kate Coyer started to broadcast in 1992, in time when women were under-represented in both mainstream and community stations- only 22% of full-time paid staff in community radio across Europe were women (Coyer, 2007:22). The question if in 2015 women as broadcasters are under-represented is still open. But the activities of UK´s Soundwomen networking platform or the FEM FM Future projects like the Ujima Radio collaboration in order to raise a future generation of female broadcasters, only shows that even thought women positions in the broadcasting may have raised, the encouraging of women to enter the broadcasting and supporting them has its strong base  also 20 years later.

The problem of female under-representing on air is but not just a matter of equaling the balance between men and female presenters, but increasing the voice of females in general. When talking about the differences of commercial radio and community radio this is the domain of the community radios who localize and specialize on and support a certain community like women. As presented in the article about the Montreal conference of Community-Oriented Radio Broadcasters from Peter M. Lewis, community radios are a reaction toward established models either of the state broadcasting system or the commercial one. Furthermore in comparison with commercial radio, that tend to neglect important ´minority´ voices, for community radios needs are crucial.

One of unique examples of a community radio is Astute Radio. In their broadcasting they give space to women and girls from minority communities to challenge gender and other stereotypes. When I look on the broad issues that this radio deals with it leaves me, only but thinking that a female community radio station is not just about feminism, but about giving space to stories of women that any other women can relate to. From abolishing the myths of a female scientist, overcoming a burnout syndrom to overcoming the loss of job. The interviews of women, various women from different backgrounds with diverse stories are inspiring, encouraging and hardly being find in this form in any other commercialy driven radio station. Astute Radio would perfectly fit into the framework of Maria Eugenia Chávez´s views about a community radio.

Community radios are rich with stories of women. All of these tales could fill hours and hours of broadcasts and women’s voices would be the conduit for bringing these talking stories to life. Thus, it would be a radio broadcast story about women and radio.(Chávez, Unesco: Gender and newsroom cultures)

One of such stories of a women and a community based radio is also the launching of Nisaa Gaza, Palestinian  female radio. Islam Barbar, a 26-year old women thanks to a grant from UK, Palestinian NGO that gave her the technic and with volunteers made her dream about a community radio that would deal with women rights true. But at the same time the presence of men and women in her radio station is also about a message that gender issues are not the exclusivity of women. (Kutab, Huffington post blog). The empowerment of women like Islam Barbar and other women though a community radio is one of the scopes of the World Association of Community Broadcasters that is supporting the ideas of women-led iniciatives around the world.


About Astute Radio

Coyer, K., Dowmunt, T. and Fountain, A. (2007) The Alternative Media Handbook. London: Routledge

Kuttab, D. (2014) ´Palestinian trying to rebuild progressive women radio´, in Huggington Post blog.

Lewis, P. (1984) ´Community Radio: The Montreal Conference and after´, in Media, Culture &  Society, vol. 6, pp. 137-150.

Maria Eugenia Chávez. ´Scheherezades: a thousand an one stories of women in community radio´, in UNESCO: Gender and Newsroom cultures

The Bristol Post (2014) ´Women on the Waves: Ujima Radio and Fem FM present the next generation of radio talent´, in The Bristol Post


Online Revolution

Online revoltions today thanks to the Internet. With internet developments social sites became active and world can contact easy and speedly. We see online revolutions succes in Arab Spring. And internet play major role in that time.

If we tcompare mainstream media and internet, we must talk about free speech and can free from resistance. Mainstream media make manipulate people nd make news from side of the government. Arab Spring lshow to us attackt to the goverment but with social media that people tell uys their aim and goals. In Tahrir people get common with social media. Facebook, tiwiteer , wikileaks etc, play important role. They contact with these platform and announce of the people what was happening. People can be find different opnion about whats going on. In that time it is the first time we see alternative nmkedia power. And differences from mainstream media. Today we live dinternet age and people can be find a way of support their ideas. Like annonymous is an example. They get collective on the internet and they can be resistance . It is important development on the media.

Internet has Became Alternative to Television

It is no doubt that television is exposed to power and economic policies. Therefore television programs, news programs, series etc, are usually censored or self censored. In this instance, public opinion is shaped according to the policy or they are informed incorret or incomplete. For example the ban of broadcating to Reyhanlı explosion. For that reason people have followed that new story from internet. Because internet is less exposed censorship.
Therefore we can easily say that internet become alternative to television. Althoug being television is a mainstream media tool and today people prefer use internet in stead of television, by internet, they can watch several television channels
In fact, thanks to internet, we have more chance to watch more movies. Before internet, there was only television and most of people did not have a chance to go to cinema regulary to watch movies. Therefore people had to wait to broadcat on television. On the other hand thanks to internet people can follow series and tv program seven they do not watch television. They can do it through internet.
In conclusion, with internet, people started not to be limited with television. Because internet present to new way to people to follow agenda so it has became alternative to television.

Television and computer technology

Television technology has created a magnificent electronic media, unmatched in modern history. Thanks to the technology of mass communications, the collection and distribution of news are simplified, and the number of audience increased significantly. This is a natural result of the possibilities of television to cover the widest of all the inhabitants of the area, all age groups and social classes. The convergence between television technology, communications and computer technology, creates a completely new environment in which it must inevitably re-create the basis on which all electronic media. Reproduction of distribution channels, the use of new transmission routes and new sources of information, opens opportunities two-way communication in the domain that has traditionally been unilateral, creating new lines of development of television technology.

What is a television? It is a complex technical system for the creation and transmission of audio and video content. The name is derived from Greek words thle (far in the distance) and the Latin visus (sight, watching), then television is watching from a distance.

Television images hired most of our senses, encourages reflection and leaves no one indifferent. From the very beginning of its existence, television was our prolonged (extended) sense, lead us to places which we alone cannot reach. Television allowed us to “attend” to significant events. Digital television and computer technologies provide unlimited creative possibilities in television production.  Many futuristic predictions have become reality – part of everyday life. During the last two decades, computer technology has evolved with astonishing speed. From year to year, PC computers are becoming faster, smaller and cheaper.

Searching for computer systems which are endowed with the ability to think, discover meaning, learning on the basis of experience and perform other tasks, are already  brought significant results in the field of artificial intelligence. Today computers can respond to spoken commands in the languages that are not a language of computers, to recognize shapes and schemes and even to serve as medical devices. However, among scientists and philosophers, the question remains whether the computers ever be able to think like humans and possess intuition, feelings, consciousness.

The development of digital electronics was contributed to the improvement of television equipment. Mid-eighties, computer becomes an integral part of television equipment, which gradually developed into a new audiovisual system that connects modern information technology and traditional television systems. On the other hand, with the advent of PC technology in the eighties, computers get their place in the journalism newsrooms, where they are mainly used for word processing. By connecting  computers of redaction to the network,  enabled the exchange of text within one or more media outlets. By integrating these networks with computers in TV production and  studio technique, in the nineties, and the emergence of multimedia network services, to journalists allowed access to video and audio materials, as well as sharing them with other newsroom. Therefore, computers have become an integral part of the entire system with a television center.

Television as an independent and “imaginative” means of mass communication, no doubt played a significant role in the political, economic, and overall life of the Planet. Extremely high quality television programming nowadays achieved thanks to digital television technology. This television program can be seen as a work of art that to the viewer creates a certain feeling and affect the state of the spirit.

Television and the Internet are now the dominant empire that stretches to far greater territory of any country that has ever existed in history. Television and the Internet are a magnificent auditorium many, unsurpassed in the development of modern civilization.



I  begin  my writing with films. Actually, films which carry away us to different world some of them real but some of them are fancy and they are categorized in terms of issues like drama,comedy, war, we don’t only watch, we see that and have an idea about cultures, customs, traditions peoples, cities,  which hold a place in the world and we have chance to make sense about these issues. Firstly, I take hand Turkish films which means that  how they hold a place  within Turkish people life and then I give way to how Turkih televisions enter to our lifes and give some examples about first broadcasatings.

First film screening was shown at Palace during 1896 during II. Abdülhamit by Bertrand.  First years of  Turkish films were  foreign movies. In 1914, ‘Ayastefanos’ taki Rus Abidesinin Yıkılışı’ which was accepted as first Turkish documentary film and which was shooted by Fuat Uzkınay. This film takes place in this link in a shortly ( ) Especially, until republican period, films’ content about First World War. In this sector, Muhsin Ertuğrul  acceded film company at 1922 and who was crucial person up to 1950. He shooted more than 30 films. Some of his films were called Ateşten Gömlek (1923), its content was about Turkish War of Independence. First sound film was İstanbul Sokakları (1931) and Bir Millet Uyanıyor ( 1932). After 1950s, it was started to shape Turkish cinema language slowly. In 1952, ‘Kanun Namına’ was turning point of Turkish film in terms of its recital method, its player, location which film. In 1960s, film was effected negatively because television entered to our lifes . While cinema penetrated social and economic issues in 1970s, and in 1980s, cinema took hand issues about women and psychological films. After then in 1990s, number of Turkish films were reduce but they were well qualified films. (I summarize these informations and took them from this page : ) On the other hand, I want to hold a place that first Turkish film which was broadcasted by TRT in 17 th November of 1968. Its content was suspenser- psychological film. There was a girl who was so jealous, so aggressive and her attitude to other people were so rude. This character was picked by Alev ORALOĞLU. This film takes a place in this link. (First Turkish Film in TRT )

Actually, as I evaluate Turkish film according to these informations, there was deficiencies because Turkey which followed developments in this sector from behind of the West. It was shaped by foreign films because it was effected in terms of its technology, its methods, its contents. What I mean is that Turkish cinema didn’t shape itself, it was enriched by other countries  but if we look at today, especially with effects of education, with improvement of tehcnology in terms of visuality, technical equipments, Turkish cinema progresses. In addition to this, there are many successful film directors, many players who develop themselves and produces good qualified films and they not only show their films in local area but also embody Turkey in global area, in some contests or some film festivals. I give some known director and their films which represent Turkish  cinema in all over the world. Nuri Bilge Ceylan (Uzak,2003 / Gegen Die Wand,2004), Fatih Akın, Ferzan Özpetek, Abdullah Oğuz (Mutluluk,2007)

Secondly, I take hand television and give short information about history of Turkish television. Undoubtedly, everybody have television in their home. It addresses to people in different way because its function change. What I mean is that , in the old days, there were news and people followed news thorough Tv but if we compare role of television from past to today , we will see that it has many functions. For example, while we watch news at one channel, on  the other hand, we watch football matches, tv series, talk shows, etc etc. Actually, today we have an idea about what is going on in our country and in the world.

If I look at history of Turkish television, it would started at Istanbul Technical University at 1952 as laboratory work and it was accepted at starting point of television in Turkey. Broadcasting contents were theatre, Western classical music, concer of folk music, health, child, cultural programs but it terminated its broadcastings and attorned its technical equipments to TRT at 1968. At that time, television was seen as education and cultural vehicle by program publishers. I want to take a place  a link which  shows that first broadcasting of TRT in 31 January of 1968 which was test broadcasting from Ankara. (First Broadcasting of TRT :  but the condition of TRT was changed because with 1990s, there were started to emerge private television and because of this reason TRT fell in step with its rivals and established alternative channels like TRT 2 (culture-art), TRT 3 (spor channel), TRT GAP( addresses to East and Southeast area of Turkey), TRT INT (addresses to Turkish people who live in foreign country) so TRT which was the most important channel in history Turkish television because Turkish people who had chance to watch , took information, had an idea about many things thorough TRT.

On the other hand, first private television started with Star. (This is the advertisment of Star Tv before it broadcasted )  After then, Show Tv, Kanal 6, Atv, HBB, TGRT, Samanyolu, Kanal D, Kanal 7 and Flash TV which were other Turkish private channels then Star. I give link which showed advertising of Star Tv. There were two speakers who gave information about program formats in terms of contest programmes, football programs etc. They tried to higlight that Star Tv which contributes lots of things to  life of Turkish people. ( I took these informations from publication of Ministry of Education about History of Turkish Radio and Television Pages between 36-41 : )

So if I evaluate Turkish television behalf of alternativeness, it was so problematic situation because there was only one Turkish channel and which was managed under many rules and Turkish people didn’t have alternative chance to look another. If private televisions came to our life earlier, point of Turkish people would be so wide because regulations also had an crucial role on them and these cause to prevent themselves to broadcast something in a freely way and cause that people didn’t express their lifes, talk about politics, talk about economics in a freely way. Actually, there was so compulsion on Turkish television. Today, the condition was changed because  number of television increases day by day, their program formats are developed and enlarged and addresses to every people whoever has different life style one another. In addition to this, In Turkey, at the beginning of Turkish television, we won’t talk about independence but today I think that there was return of repressed because people who have chance to more in debate programs, or talk shows even it is limited but the point which Turkish television comes to today condition is so progressive and not easy.

In conclusion, I talk about Turkish cinema and Turkish televisions. Undoubtedly, at the beginning, Turkey was backward and didn’t have available condition in terms of technical, economic, political condition, and the only thing which it did is that follow other development countries and tried to do same thing with them because of this reason Turkey didn’t do original works and today conditions are changed because in Turkey, there are lots of channels, lots of films which do different works, produce many things, reaches many people in terms of penetrating dissimilar content program formats behalf of TV again imitate to attract Turkish people attention but I think that milestone in history of Turkish television and also effect on film is that emergence of private television. If it didn’t, today we will be closed not only each other but also other countries, people , culture in all over the world because its place in our life is undeniable. We travel with them to many place with channel surf and witnesses many things.

Alternative Foreign Channels – Our Enemies

Film, video and especially a television have been for the past fifty years in the developed countries and the last thirty to forty years in an undeveloped countries  a very important medium for the news broadcasting and entertainment   People get informed about the political, economic and environmental events via the television and news channels provided. Who is responsible for the selection of the news and also for the interpretation and the comments that accompany the news? How “objective” and “democratic” can be news that are broadcasted by the news channels belonging to the same cooperation and distribution companies and would like to continue to have a monopoly on world’s news?

A very interesting video got my attention just recently. In the video, Hilary Clinton, the U.S secretary of State is declaring that American television media and channels such as CNN and British BBC are under the “treat” and officially in the information war with the foreign media. The ones treating these Western mainstream media; who for a while, had a monopoly  for a short period in the world broadcasting world news, is an alternative media coming from the ‘enemy” countries such as Russia, China, Iran and Venezuela. These countries have established an international channels in different language, such as English, Spanish, Russian.. where they address same questions, events etc. with their own commentaries, that many times clash with the commentaries provided by the American and British news broadcasting giants.

Russia became worldwide known with its RT – Russia Today, which is registered as autonomous non-profit organization.  China’s CCTV (China Central television), broadcasting from Peking, has a network of 22 channels broadcasting different programs, such as news, documentary, entertainment. Similarly, Al Jazeera which is owned privately by Al Jazeera Media Network stated in Doha, Qatar.

In the name of USA broadcasting network news, Hilary Clinton supported by the American broadcasting cooperations, perceives  that having an alternative views broadcasting by a foreign media on the news and especially on the USA political moves and actions, as a war. Therefore America is in a way a “good guy” here and the foreign media is “an enemy”. Clinton goes with her definitions on the subject saying that Al Jazeera is winning; Russian’s open multilingual channel broadcasting, as did the Chinese. Apparently according to Hilary other influential countries are not supposed to be having an opinion on world’s events, opposing and criticizing the USA government and various events connected to it.  She speaks in such a way as if having a foreign media broadcasting in English would almost be a crime, not to mention a great threat to one-view oriented America and Britain.

As a result, CNN and BBC are making cuts, they are losing the public drastically, more and more people are hungry and searching for an alternative media outside these big news broadcasting companies that are no longer satisfying the general publish who started questioning single-minded one-view perspective on the world’s news. On the other hand, channels such as RT, Al Jazeera and CCTV are gaining more and more audience each day. RT has 550 million viewers in more than 100 countries, CCTV has an astonishing billion viewers.


Furthermore, what is interesting in the video with a Hilary Clinton, is the hostility she shows towards these non-American broadcasting channels, she goes as far as to call them “the enemies”, and sees the situation as the “We are in the information war and we are losing the war.”  So apparently, having a different opinion or giving a different comment to a situation being broadcasted on let’s say CNN, makes you an enemy, which I perceive as a strongly negative word, enemy is someone who wants to do you bad, harm you and your family and makes you in generally feel frightened. That diminishes the respect and credibility of the whole ideology as America being the role model of a democratic country in the world and even going as far as to “spread and fight for democracy in other countries.”

Can these foreign channels be classified as a radical alternative media towards the mainstream media? In a way, these channels are a mainstream media in their own countries, and truth to be told, they probably won’t stand the test of the Barber’s analytic categories such as agenda setting, exploring mutuality and affiliation and affection, witness and self-expression and community building. However, i am trying to show here that mainstream media all over the world, especially American and British one, may perceive others as a threat, and if they can’t stand difference of an opinion and criticize it so boldly, then this proves that alternative views are indeed necessary, otherwise why would American broadcasting made such a fuss?

Taking USA back in time when the media was still forming in the America. In American constitution is it written in a more freeway manner, that the media should be a “watchdog”, as to follow state’s flaws, mistakes, all and all criticize the government, follow and openly show the corruption in order to build a better and more democratic country. But is that really the case in the USA? The so called “freedom of speech” becomes questionable here, if we take Clinton’s words regarding the foreign TV channels, having a different opinion is not only bad is in fact a form of evil (hence the conclusion” our enemies”), America feels that they are out-communicated by their “enemies”, and therefore they have to defend their country, their interests. I would love to hear the further explanation of the USA  Head of Agency for foreign Broadcasting who in fact uses the term “enemies” regarding the foreign media, what exactly does it mean to be out-communicated? No one stops the CNN, FOX TV, BBC etc. to broadcast their news, it just that different views of points are available through different foreign channels and in a more accessible and easy to reach ways, such as internet, you tube etc.

Voices of other people from all over the world should and must be heard or at least they should have a chance to speak up and share their own experiences. One point of view of one country alone and one government cannot speak for the entire world; and if anything tolerance and respect should be practiced in worldwide broadcasting media news, to build a better tomorrow. As Martin Luther King put it:” Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred.”




Ötekilerin Postası (Post of the Others)

Barber puts forward a set of concepts which describe the various functions of democratic “talk” and which provide a theoretical framework for understanding some of the ways in which access television functions as a political communication resource.(Stein, 1998)With the help of these functions, we will examine a case of “Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others) effectively and focus on democratic functions of alternative media.

-Agenda Setting; “Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others) is following an approach that encourage citizen participation in agenda-setting.”Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others)  startted as an alternative media during the hunger strikes in prisons in Turkey. Since the beginning of strikes the mainstream media did not function effectively and inform the public even there were hundreds of strikers. The founders of “Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others)  explain the beginning of the process  by outlining the question; “Why do we need the mainstream media?”

-Exploring Mutuality and Affiliation and Affection; “Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others) helps people to involve in political communcation and express their feeling, in their words about the issues concerns them.They do not consider themselves as news portal but also social responsible platform that involves in social projects. “Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others) aims to be the voice of “the Others”, which became others by the system, and by doing that creating awareness in the society.

-Maintaining Autonomy; By letting people to re-evaluate their opinions and values “Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others)  guides individuals to reproduce a certain autonomy. Volunteer citizen journalists share videos and pictures that they shoot and expose their  ideas about current issues.

-Witness and Self-expression; “Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others)  allows diverse groups to represent themselves on their own.Ötekilerin Postası charactarizes itself as a fisherman in Trabzon,a transgender in İzmir, Kürt in Haymana, Armenian in İstanbul,  Miner in Zonguldak, Alevi in Dersim, Suryani in Mardin, a teacher who waits for assignment in Bilecik, thousands of disabled people ve thousands of students who demostrates in streets.

-Reformulation and Reconceptualisation;Reformulation and Reconceptualisation of political and social terms and values is part of participatory democratic functions. “Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others) focuses on especially fascist and racist discourses. It’s major topics are; gender, human rights, youth,labour,conscientious objection and etc.

-Community-building; “Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others)  promote active citizenship by encouraging individuals to be volunteer journalists.It startted as “Hunder Strike Post” in the 40th day of the strike by volunteer 2 activists independently from the main-stream media. By sharing the strike process with the audience transparently, “Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others) increased the number of its followers day by day. ( ) It’s motto is ; we make a hole on censorship with citizen journalism.

As we outlined the framework of the “Ötekilerin Postası”(Post of the Others), it is important to ask what made them ask the question of “Why following just main-stream media?”.




Stein, L. (1998) “Democratic “Talk, Access Television and Participatory Political Communication” , in Swiss Journal of Sociology, vol. 5,pp.21-34


3, 2, 1 Record!

Television is an important medium for combining both visual and auditory components. This makes a TV product more interesting and maybe more striking than any other media. In fact, not only TV but also cinema and other types of videos which are available on the internet can be included into this classification.

It is easier to express ideas and emotions since video/film consist on both visual and auditory elements. In this aspect, this medium can be considered as an effective alternative media tool. As Fountain points out “Enabling more people to become active producers has always been one of the primary goals of many alternative media activists.” With some technological developments in film industry, more people found a chance to shoot a movie/video. At the early stages of film industry, equipments were rather expensive and hard to carry with. Developing technologies made these equipments available for any use of manner. By this way, today, anyone can easily shoot a video. However, making film/movie is not the only problem. Another important aspect of this field is distribution. A film or a video could not get much attention without being distributed to people. Thanks to the internet there are many channels available for users to share their work with other people. Many can shoot and share their video through YouTube and other video based websites.

Also mobile phones help people to shoot and share video with others. For example, if someone come across with something strange or interesting that might catch others’ attention, s/he can record it and share in just few seconds. Developing technologies permit individuals to be active producers of video and film sector. In addition, social media platforms let their users be the producer and the consumer at the same time.

In conclusion, film and video have a strong connection with the technology. Surely, not only equipment side but also distribution aspect of movie making has gone further with technological developments. Now, people carry their equipment just in their pocket and share their shootings easily.


– Fountain, A. (2007). Alternative film, video and television 1965-2005. NY: Routledge.

Agenda-setting causes the spiral of silence

Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann ,who is a political scientist, thought that the spiral of silence is not thought without the agenda-setting theory.She believed that public opinion is shaped by the helping of the media. As a result of this, the people in the societies shape their thoughts according to the media and Media is the strongest tool between these two theories according to her (which are agenda setting and spiral of silence)

And in my opinion she is right because agenda setting means to determine the journal.And while media was determining the journal at the same time it emphasized the sound of the majority. Alternative thoughts or minorities are not found any place for themselves in this process and all these things create the spiral of silence.Individulas started to think according to the majority because of fear of isolation and exclusion.

If we give an example from the past;Hitler was convinced the German nation that they are the most powerful race in the world by using the media tools of that period.Some people believed this situation but some of them although did not believe,they keep quiet because of fear of hitler’s management and fear of isolation.They convinced this case.