Online Revolution: Communication needs to be as quick as possible

“No one expected it. In a world darkened by economic distress, political cynicism, cultural emptiness and personal hopelessness, it just happened. Suddenly dictatorship could be overthrown with the bare hands of the people, even if their hands had been bloodied by the sacrifice of those fallen. Financial magicians went from being the objects of public envy to the targets of universal contempt. Politicians became exposed as corrupt liars. Governments were denounced. Media were suspected. Trust vanished…[….]” (Castells, 2012: 1).

In this case people need to create a new way to communicate each other for gathering to be a participant of social movements against to this situation. Mainstream media and government are no longer trustable. So that new ways are rising in order to communication, to reach and share information, to represent events surrounding the world. Communication needs to be as quick as possible. The technology is no longer just a helpful tool for talent sourcing specialist, but a vital part of networked social movements.

According to Castells “networked social movements of the digital age representing a new species”. For instance, networked social sites such as Twitter, Facebook and YouTube have a remarkable role to play: activists used them to highlight the initial round of protests, to distribute information, to represent events, to be participant of actions and so on. Additionally Blogs are very important to share experiences. To use social media for revolution, protest or struggle shows the life itself. Owing to increase using social media day by day people become powerful, independent, courageous and determined. Therefore it is a huge risk for government. Because basically it creates a more democratic sphere, and also it provides to reach information rapidly. So governments make provision in which banning to web sites and creating fear onto people.

There are many online revolutions around the world struggle for not only political issue but also economic, cultural, social issue and so on. For instance, ‘Movement of Freedom and Democracy’ in Morocco, Occupy Wall Street in U.S. for “income inequality and wealth distribution”, Arab Spring in Arab countries, Gezi Resistance in Turkey.

I want to give details about Arab Spring. Because the revolution has spread to other countries with a domino effect. Arab Spring Revolution was a series of protests and uprisings in the Middle East that began with unrest in Tunisia in late 2010. The Arab Spring has brought down regimes in some Arab countries. The protests included issues such as dictatorship or absolute monarchy, human rights violations, political corruption, economic decline, unemployment and extreme poverty. The Arab Spring began in Tunisia, but the decisive moment that changed the region forever was the downfall of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. The first mass protest in Egypt was announced on Facebook by an anonymous group of activists, who in a few days managed to attract tens of thousands of people. The social media proved a powerful mobilization tool that helped the activists to outwit the police. Then the Egyptian government attempted to eliminate the nation’s Internet access in order to inhibit the protesters. At the end of the struggle President Morsi was removed to power. In conclusion online revolution play a remarkable and vital role for democracy, human rights and so on.


Castells, M. (2012) Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age. London: Polity Press.

Collaborative Projects: Photoshop Wiki

Collaborative project create new possibilities to group of people to work together. It aims provide an area in order to collaborate with people on topics which can be particularly useful projects for resource. Basically it is a method used to plan, coordinate and control based on internet.

The most popular and well-known example of wiki is Wikipedia. It is open source software that allows to anyone to modify the content of articles by adding, removing or changing text, images, and links. Wikipedia includes plenty of subjects such as history, literary, science, music, people, politics and so on.

Wikias is “the social universe for funs, by funs”. It is the world’s largest network of collaboratively published games, entertainment and lifestyle content on the world. Angela Beesley and Jimmy Wales that are the creators of open-source encyclopedia, Wikipedia, built it. They defined their aim “Our knowledgeable and devoted fans create hundreds of wikias every day on a trusted and customizable platform designed to help people share what they know and love”. They have 1.5 billion page views in monthly from 223 countries in over 100 languages. For instance, Photoshop Wiki. Adobe Photoshop is a graphics-editing program developed and published by Adobe Systems. Wiki activity, Photoshop Wiki aim is to improve Photoshop and to share information, videos about Photoshop. Firstly register is needed. After that all members contribute and edit the page such as add video, photo, page and also create new wiki activity. It includes thousands of questions and answers about Photoshop. Also, includes forum and blog pages.

Additionally Wikia includes downloads for mobile applications MyWikia App and Wikia Game Guides.

Spiral of silence of mass media and citizen journalism

Elisabeth Noelle Neumann was a German political scientist, offered a theory that explains the growth and spread of ‘public opinion’. According to her she believed that public opinion shaped by mass media. Therefore her theory, spiral of silence, said mainstream media shows us what government allow or want. Therefore she believes that the media accelerate the muting of the minority in the spiral of silence.
There are so many examples in the world to support this theory. For instance, Arab Spring that is a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests in Arab world. It began in 2010. Mainstream media didn’t give news about protest, conflicts, or wounded people. The government and also mainstream media didn’t want to dissemination of the protest because if people were gathered the rebellion would grow through the civil war. After a while, people act in concert with social media. Although Arab countries do not use social media in daily they gathered around Facebook immediately. They contact with people in order to inform what is happening. It created broad platform for their struggle. Eventually they knew they weren’t alone or minority throughout their struggle.










An example from Turkey, during ‘Gezi Resistance’ a few Gezi news were occurred in mainstream media for instance the tv channel of CNN Turk broadcasted ‘Penguin Documentary’. Despite that people around Turkey organized protests, collect informations, shared videos and photographs and disseminate events So that facebook and Twitter users increased gradually. Additionally many alternative newspapers and journals published that news and alternative media channels broadcasted them mostly with a live broadcast such as Halk Tv, Ulusal Channel, Sözcü Newspaper and so on.










In conclusion, both citizen journalism and participatory journalism provide to create own media build by activist and also local or marginalized people in order to struggle of right to demand information and build communication network.


Griffen, Em, 2009, A first look at communication theory (7th ed.), New York, NY: McGraw Hill

Digital Stories for ‘love, freedom or unspoken subjects’

Digital stories are expressive medium that combine photographs, video, animation, sound and so on. In another world we can say digital stories are multimedia movies that offer a new practice to ordinary people in order to make voice heard present in emotionally, effectively… It is a way to follow emancipatory feelings. British photographer, author, and educator Daniel Meadows defined that digital stories are “multimedia sonnets from the people”.

Digital media embraces digital stories with different types of topics in broad perspective. It can be about business, education or personal stories. For instance, photography videos that include slideshow of special moments photographs give a chance to express ‘love’. In another example, the video can be used to celebrate ‘Mother’s Day’ with photographs and also music. But there is another way to reflect feelings with a sense of awareness.

There is a video below to stand out ‘Mother’s Day’ with using interesting way that never be forgatten.

Apart from this, digital stories can be used to express realities in depth in the world through violence, discrimination, resistance, gender issue, refugees, bullying and so forth. In the main digital storytelling represent events or issues that ignored by traditional media mediums. In one sense digital storytelling offers free circulation in order to be a voice for unspoken people.
In this respect it can be said that digital storytelling plays an important role in people’s life.

Alternative Computing: Hacking

In the late 20th century hacker became a figure that have created new way for breaking boundaries and cracking social codes. The hacker first emerged out of the electrical engineering labs at the Massachusetts Institute for Technology ( MIT ).

Himanen believes that hackers can be captured in seven values: passion, freedom, social worth, openness, activity, caring and, the highest value, creativity. They produce new concepts, new perceptions, new sensations in order to social challenge to emerge great cultural changes. Wark believes hackers are the new radicals and the revolutionary class of the twenty-first century. “To hack is to differ …. Hackers create the possibility of new things entering the world. Not always great things, or even good things, but new things. In art, in science, in philosophy and culture, in any production of knowledge where data can be gathered, where information can be extracted from it, and where in that information new possibilities for the world produced, there are hackers hacking the new out of the old.” ( Wark, Mckenzie, A Hacker Manifesto, 2004, pp. 3-4 )

Hacking mean is creativity but to understand clearly we should analysis other political and social meanings. Hacks are material practices that require the whole infrastructure of computers, wires, programming language related to computer, communication and network technology. We can assess hacking into two different angle with one vision hacking as an ally of business and the other vision hacking as the agent of revolution. Taylor (1999), Truckle (1984), Thomas (2002) who have empirical work on hacking find that hackers are attracted illicit acts. They may transgress a law or social convention and hack via illegal ways. Additionally hactivism means “using hacking related techniques for political ends” (Earl and Kimport, 2011, p.225).

If an early slogan of hacker culture has it that ‘information wants to be free’, it finds itself, to borrow from Rousseau, ‘everywhere in chains’ (Wark, 2004: 126). I want to give an example in Turkey called RedHack which was established in the late 1990s. In my opinion they are like-minded Wark’s idea. Their slogan is “ Attacking RedHack is attacking the freedom of information, the press freedom and the freedom of expression. They identify themselves Marksist and Socialist. The government declared them as a “terrorist organization”. They are Turkish left wing hacker group. Their aim is to expose the government’s dirty secrets. The government (AKP) scare from internet in fact be in trouble. RedHack infilitrated to the Ankara police systems, captured some information and published them online. People saw how dirty is police relations. Also they leak details of hundreds of Turkish Government Officials. RedHack has published over 600 records relating to Turkish government officials after breaching the security of the biggest internet service provider in Turkey.
This is the one example of their many actions:
In May, 2012, the cyberactivist group attacked the websites of milk companies following a scandal in which hundreds of children were poisoned by state-distributed milk in schools.

Anonymous who is associated international network of activist and hacktivist entities supports RedHack and the freedom of information of Turkish people.

This support, we will show in every way we possess.

 ( Anonymous said )

We are Anonymous. 

We are Legion. 

We do not forgive. 

We do not forget. 

Expect us.

There is a film about RedHack and its aim and protests.

In conclusion in the information age the hacker undertakes a task for understanding labor, the commodity and private property.
Wark, Mckenzie, Theory, and Culture & Society : Hacking, 2006
Wark, Mckenzie, A Hacker Manifesto, 2004

Understanding Economic Problems via Cultural Jamming

                                                                                        Culture Jamming

The crucial and vital problem in the world is “capitalism” correspondingly “consumerism”. When we walk on the street or travel by car, bus, train etc. we see plenty of advertisements on everywhere that prey on us as directed. Entertainment, shopping and other consumer activities are became people’s top free time preferences thanks to gigantic helps of advertisements. As people in global societies increasingly enjoy the freedoms of private life therefore we isolate ourselves from public life.

That’s why the term “cultural jamming” is came up. Culture jamming is a form of alternative media. It is the react of using mass media such as billboards, bus-ads, posters and so on. In my opinion we can say it is the way of criticizing and subverting advertising and consumerism in the mass media and rework on them in order to create conscious citizens in terms of environment, social values and political issues.

Cultural jammers ‘create with mirrors’ (Berry 1995) and are related to what Gramsci (1971: 417) called a ‘new way of conceiving the world’ and ‘modifying . . . popular thought and mummified popular culture’.

The most well known type of culture jamming is subvertising. The most remarkable and known example of culture jamming is probably, Adbusters, (, a magazine featuring subvertisements of famous brands.
To give an example I think the most effective example is Greenpeace using culture jamming as a tactic. In 1989 they projected the message “ We have nuclear weapons on board” onto British aircraft, carrier, moored in Hamburg Harbour.    You can see picture below (

The basic unit of communication in culture jamming is the meme: the core unit of cultural transmission. I want to give an example of their campains where you can find it on Adbusters magazine web page called “Kick It Over”  and “Buy Nothing Today” (, /

Kick It Over project aim is to raise awareness of students about capitalism and its outcomes and also effects on our lifes. Their project “Meme Wars On Campus” address to students: “You are entering university at a critical juncture. Capitalism is in crisis and the crisis is growing deeper”. They pose some questions to students to understanding economic games such as “ How did economists get it so wrong?”, What good are economists anyway?” etc. They have some posters on the web page and suggest ” Print out your favorite posters from this website and post them in the corridors of your economics department … pin them up all over campus and on prof’s doors! Do this until a debate breaks out, one that shakes the foundations of neoclassical economic science”. We can say it is an awareness-raising campaign. You can see the protest pictures below.

 The other project is “Buy Nothing Today”  also stand out shopping necessity that is arised by capitalism. They create shopping habits for special days such as Christmas.  You can see below there are some posters to points out shopping traps.

Additionally there is a documentary about culture jamming. It remarkably explains how we are exposed to advertising. And also its excessive impact on our life.

In conclusion the exposure of advertisements is affecting our culture.  Our habits, life style and preferences are shaped by capitalist system. Culture jamming and meme-driven communication offer interesting windows to remember what real living is all about.


Culture Jamming…What is it?

VC501 – Disseration Preperation: Culture Jamming

Bailey, O. G., Cammaerts, B. and Carpentier, N. (2008) Understanding Alternative Media.













The Short History of Community Radio

The radio has been the first device to allow for mass communication. The development of the radio began in 1893 with Nicolai Tesla. The later scientist Gugliamo Marconi who worked to perfect radio we now use was fascinated by Heinrich Hertz’s earlier discovery of radio waves and realized that it can be used for sending and receiving telegraph messages, referring to it as “ wireless telegraphs”.
The early uses of the radio were mainly, maintaining contact between ships out a sea. The radio saw a surge of use during the First World War. However this initial radio was able to sent Morse code messages.
After World War British Broadcasting Company ( BBC ) was built in 1922. Its aim is “inform, educate and entertain”. Following Second World War the radio turned into its more recognizable for of musical entertainment. BBC was giving the people what they need rather what they want. During the growing process thousands of more stations sprung up playing all different kinds of music (world, pop, jazz, classical, etc) as well as newscast. However 21st century the radio has top out. Despite the advert of television, radio is still popular medium in our life. Car, mobile phone, computer provide listening many different kinds of radio stations. On the other hand through the convergence of radio and internet we can listen and participate to radio with a simple click of a mouse.
Finally, I want to write Albert Einstein explanation about radio:
“ You see, wire telegraph is a kind of a very, very long cat. You pull his tail in New York and head is meowing in Los Angeles. Do you understand this? And radio operates exactly the same way: you send signals here, they receive them there. The only difference is that there is no cat. “


“Democratic Talk” From Past to Today

The purpose of democratic talk is to create citizens who can think as a public, make reasoned political judgements, and imagine a common future for the common good ( Barber 1984, 197 ).
In this space, individuals are able to represent themselves and their perspectives directly to others. Additionally individuals tend to express explicitly their ideology, opinions and discuss freely collective problems such as social problems, human rights, culturel issues with being non-partisan and non-profit entity. Accsess televison and participatory political communication provides an area that give informations about what are happening in our country and also in the world.
An example from the past, Martin Luther King was an American pastor, activist and the leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He organized nonviolent protest that attracting national attention following television news covarage of the brutal police response. He also helped to organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his “ I Have a Dream” speech. Therefore he established his reputation as one of the greatest orators in American history. Also he was the voice of minorty and justice.
In conclusion, today we have a wide range of device to organize public forums around issues that concern us and to become a part of communication process which are necessary for self-governance via access television channels, videos.



Punk Music as an Underground Press

The birth of underground press lead in mid 15th century onwards. The role of underground press has been power although people hasn’t had enough power and conditions. The underground media, in that centuries, consisted in Reformation Movements ( 1520 ), American Revolution( 1765-83 ) and French Revolution (1789 ). Each counterculture movement was the organ that constructed resistance network. These become a voice of independence, freedom and liberty.
In 1960s and 1970s, the term “underground media” is used to refer to illegal publications under oppresive regimes, such as, “samizdat” in Soviet Union and “bibula” in Poland. The underground press were the independently published and distributed underground papers associated with the countercultere in United State, United Kingdom and other western nations. Public tend to set up their life in peace and freedom excluded war, oppression and expoiltation. Therefore the role movements were indispensably existed, for instance, civil rights, black power, feminist movement, opposition movement to the war in Vietnam.
People reflect their reaction via pamphlets, fanzines, comics, flyers, posters and so on. The significant movements, in 1970s, is punk subculture which centres of punk rock music , comprises a diverse array of ideologies, fashions and forms of expressions including visual art, dance, literature and film. They had punk music magazines published in photocopied formats. It had been spread rapidly. The subculture is largely characterized by anti-establishment views and the promotion of individual freedom. The punks are against to capitalism ideologies. They tend to assume that people work in order to enjoy life through culture and entertainment. Punks have inherent self-reliance and “do it yourself” attitude. They have a chord to write their own band in hopes that they would play in the young person’s town.
In conclusion, punk dress heavy chains, bracelets, bullet helmets (as an oppositation indicator of anti-military and police ) that the symbol of slavery. They also have different hair style as Mohawk. Along punks have tatoo and piercings as a meaningful of political. Additionally they buy their clothes in second-hand stores to emphasize the opposition of consumption.

To understand Mainstream Media and Alternative Media

Mainstream Media
Mainstream media generally uses as a voice of the majority. Therefore mainstream media typcially reach a larger audience. Its outlet found on television, radio, in newspaper and other publications. These extensive links of communication provide them being effective and powerfull. It makes easy to achieve their aim. The main aim of mainstream media organization is to amuse people towards their benefits. These organizations make money appealing as many people as possible. They seem people as part of their project. Hence they want to see people as uneducated and unconscious which means that from books to movies to magazines are built by mainstream media organizations.
Alternative Media
The main aim of alternative media is to offer different perspective that presents the truths that is not under the control of goverment or big business organizations. Alternative media may involve traditional media forms such as newspaper, magazines,television, radio and film, like mainstream media, as well as non-traditional media such as zines and other web-based publications (e-books, e-magazines, blogs, streamed video).Additionally it also includes street theatre, dance, murals, postering, leaflet, comics, grafiti. The main function is to challenge to status quo and provide alternative perspectives. In conclusion, alternative media serves participatory platforms that share and express free idea via created communication way.