Common knowledge, or other forms of free distributions to any particular software is the space that take place in the spaces of internet, no doubt that they contribute to creation of free spaces yet, I could not find such thing that create revolutionary alterations or urgently important discovery. For instance, Wikipedia, in my point of view, helps to enlarge mind and also make easier access to knowledge. In order not to break the tradition of flows, let’s talk about Wikipedia as a case.
Wikipedia offer us number of different language so that I believe that, it smoothes the way of access to knowledge and it break the predominant position of the English language. Yet, it can be criticized that English or other Western language like French, German, and Spanish are still the dominant ones. Yet, this criticizing does not come to me fair because it is related to its user because it offers free distribution. In stress, it illustrated quite important phenomena which is about rates of the internet usage, this circumstances indicated that usage of internet more developed in the Western countries and, ‘old’ colonies of the West do not have same opportunities to log on to knowledge.
Besides, Wikipedia has been criticizing in terms of its many dimensions such as free labour, quality of the content, and creation of technocratic elites. In fact, it is again not fair to criticize that its quality because it is open to intervention. Also, the risk of technocracy is common any form of social media practices. The important thing is that not to yield to the technocracy. In addition to that, concept of the production of labour has been radically changed in the contemporary period and this is the consent that given ‘voluntarily’ so that I do not think that there is exploitation of the labour in Wikipedia, it just back up the free- labour. Therefore, my revised generalization argued that critics to Wikipedia or other common knowledge sources are so speculative therefore, critics do not work properly.
Online revolutions are the accounts that currently we encounter in all over the globe such as U.SA. as Occupy Wall Street Movement or Arab Springs in the middle east or lastly Gezi Park Movement that we experienced in the İstanbul, Turkey. The common key point about this movement is that they mostly oriented within the existence of online interventions with usage of facebook, twitter or any form of alternative broadcasting that shows us brutal police violence against the resistant participant. Therefore, these revolutions or movement can be seen as online revolutions because of its spirit and conceptualization regarding to usage of free technology and social media practices.
It was truly emancipated individuals yet I will prefer to focus that how technology also controls us within these movements because in the modern period, surveillance mostly occurred within the existence of the technological possibilities so that it should be remembered that our connections to the internet was cancelled in the demonstration and it was quite difficult to access facebook or twitter because on one hand, servers were overloaded but also government attempted to control via internet with using their power. Also, access to youtube is still problematic in Turkey. There is different ‘illegal’ way to access but citizens not enabled to access youtube.
In this picture, I concern that to use social media organ as a revolutionary components or agents because our connection to it could easily affected and harsh surveillance practices can be occurred. For instance, number of individual arrested just because their twitter account was against the governmental power sources. Thus, it is quite important to realize that while we are mentioning about social media’s powerful practices, it should also be realized that it is highly weak in the sense that official institutional practices. Therefore, my suggestion is that to empower our official right to access internet, supporting of free, unrestricted internet should be added to our discourse in order to make revolutions more secure and effective.
In the 21st century, I should admit that to focus truly weakness of the participatory journalism is a kind of counterrevolutionary action because I believe that citizen and participant agent should question his/her positioning in the process of news making. In the first stage my aim is to discuss why we need participatory journalism and its component in the neo-liberal age and then I will strive to reveal possible witnessing of such journalism practices in order to empower its power.
Participatory journalism merely attempt of identification of the connectivity, interactivity, community and it is an interventionist practices owing to its spiritual sources. It democraticized media practices because mainstream media mostly marginalize free subjects in its own discourse and also many of the individual agent does not take place in the traditional way of journalism Within the technological possibilities of the participatory action, people also started to produce news and share or they found a chance to criticize or comment produced news in the traditional media organization’s web site. In recent, it can be seen that mainstream media institutions making vast investment to their technological sources because published traditional media forms lost its power.
When we consider the reflections and critics, scholar merely concerned that qualitative goodness of the news making is influenced badly in this new form. Also, they argued that institutional power of the news agent started to loose its power so that to conceptualize media as a fourth estate might be such phantasy in soon. In addition to that, they objected to news credibility, reliability and consistency. In this picture, it is necessary to raises that how participatory journalism can be developed within its own spirit and sources. In the neo-liberal age, people are witnessing from the insecure job conditions, and de-institutionalization of the social life so that to create unorganized, spontaneous individual will be quite applicable to the notion of neo-liberalism, therefore I argued that journalism practices protects its institutional power against neo-liberal policies.
While we are doing that, participatory journalist could contribute their own blogs, sources but it is essentially important that they should exercised self-reflexivity because they are mostly benefiting from the anti-capitalist discourse but they should also educate themselves through the changes of society and its component. Also, to have an ethic in the practicing of journalism radically important in order not to produce news like the mainstream one. Besides, in order to protect, every participant should care that we need institutions to regulate and empower our own alternative just because to spread our knowledge and idea so that our critics could raised up.
Digital story telling immensely empowers subjects that mostly ignored, displaced and marginalized by the means of mainstream communication. Flows of technological tool make possible to share, produce and contribute to the production process of uncontrolled communication and this kind of activity that aiming to introduce ideas, feelings and stories create democratic communication process because marginalized subjects hold their position in order to determine their own expression any longer rather than to be passive agents.
Digital story telling can be taken up for different purposes. In one sense, it can be seen as a tool to release free circulation of the untold stories of marginalized groups therefore, it can be an activity of human rights group in order to take attention and express their existence in a more convenient way.
The second purpose can be that to direct and learn people about their feelings. I mean that in some certain condition, people could express themselves more difficultly. For instance, owing to gendered discrimination in the society, large number of individual hesitates to express their sexual orientation or gender identity. In addition to that, a lot of women are suppressed with the patriarchal discourse. Thus, my suggestion is that digital storytelling can be tool to activate such silenced subjects of the society so that it should be realized that digital story telling both has an internal and external influence. One is occur through intercommunication within other people but it also has a potential to touch self-enclosed subjects. Besides, it does not have to make affiliation with the silenced groups. Every individual could benefit from it in order to express his or her personal point of view, expression via the digitalized stories. In any case it has a potential to liberate people, liberate communication processes.
Tout ensemble, it is highly influential method to activate and creates free subjects and non-hegemonic discourses. Thence, the technique should be circulated and shared in order to enlarge its scope around world. And, human rights organization can be benefit in order to empower their target groups with via digital story telling.
Computing practices is truly associated with the increased figure of technology and also the discussions of new public spheres and democratic electronic areas.
The sophisticated technology make easier to participation to social event because it increase the social bounds and accessibility. The intensified point of technology enables us to produce knowledge and meaning because in historical process, internet access started to be eligible and cheaper. Therefore, this trend encourage rebellious groups to produce new, undistorted knowledge but they also aimed to harm powerful media organization and social groups such as hacking practices of counter supporter of government.
I assumed that computing practices permit that to construct liberal, boundless spaces even if, all attempts of regulation practices because technological information led us to determine the rules of internet and technology. This new public spheres introduce to unspoken subject of the grand, modernizing project because number of different social group has being silenced with applying to disciplinary power and so on during the one dimensional modernization process.
I also cogitate that computing practices democratized citizenship in somehow because I do not believe that consumption of technology and internet are not equal around globe since one can argue that internet consumption can be clarify with the analysis of stratification circumstances of cyberspace. Thence, different conditions regarding to income, ethnicity, and gender should be taken into our account.
In addition to that, hacking practices is not always express positive attitude because as we discussed in the class, there are two different types of the hacking practices: white and black hacking. Therefore, number of powerful groups could encounter with attack of people who has a bad intention. Therefore, hacking practices should be considered both its advantage and its unsolicited results.
The topic of ‘Tactics of Cultural Resistance’ was most influential and inspiring topic during the semester for me. Openning up class with the discussion of Dada increased my motivation. Apart from my personal feeling through the class, I want to search for the reason of my interaction towards topic therefore, I will make a self-reflexivity to myself and then I will strive to cover up my concern and thinks about the cultural resistance’ projects.
I believe that the discourse of capitalism truly legitimize the such stuff that aiming to promote itself as strategic, tactical, deliberate, calculated and so on forth. Therefore, the term tactical remind me the effectiveness of the capitalist system but in contrast, it affiliated with the practices of alternative media, resistance to hegemony, counter-culture and so on. Therefore, it linked with positive attitude in the sense that its connotation. Therefore, I probably interest it because the agency was changing and they started to control action process rather than to watching passively.
Cultural resistance make easier to resist and oppose to mainstream forms of the media. I think the concept of cultural resistance express the wholly approach and outlook of the alternative media projects. It can be argued that concepts and metaphors are making easier to make affiliations within the theoretical approaches so that to conceptualize struggles within the notion of ‘cultural resistance’ or ‘cultural jamming’ increase the way of attention and consideration to these media projects.
Cultural jamming projects are mostly attempting to make emotional contacts with using the distorted art forms thence, people could get in touch and contact with the messages more easily. I found jamming projects quite manipulative but it is the most important point of their action. In stress, these projects have vast potential to create non-hegemonic messages in the streets, billboards and in the surveillance system. In addition to that, my concern is derived from that they have a potential to turn into tyranny of the passivity which is expressing for me group of people that has lost their awareness throughout the social strata and politics. Also, I could argued that it is more important to encourage people to act and rebel rather than to impress because this point sometimes might be turned into shocking in which people passivated and lost their direction against the exploited system. Yet, this possibility always exists so that producers of the jamming projects should keep in mind this threat.
My example is deriving from the jamming project of unknown group in İstanbul who change the billboards with non-hegemonic discourses against municipality. The core thing of the action was that to change official language of the municipality because they do not perform their role to protect powerless social group but after alteration of the billboard, discourse was totally changed and this action empowered this passivated social groups.
Intensification of media and information technology led people to participate media practices. This is the accepted discourse of alternative media studies. There is no doubt that participation practices incredibly increased in terms of traditional practices. Yet, my concern is about this excessively increased the discourse of participatory media could also be turned into a chain, which share in somehow traditional media practices.
The justification of my argument will be proved by institutional practices of facebook, twitter, instagram or commentary options of online newsmaking. Limitations and requirement of those public media organizations create a way of producing media texts. For instance, story is quite clear for twitter; you have certain word accounts! Instagram explain you well that I was created to solve your desire to share photos, or editorial control mechanism of commentary options of the online news practices. These institutional control mechanisms and rules also determine the level of participation to the alterative media organization.
In stress, it could be quite wrong to say that alternative media and social media organizations are not liberating us; they liberate us from the common, hierarchical journalism practices because any longer citizen could produces news with applying to wordpress or other operational organs. Yet, ‘mainstreamed’ social media organizations both create increased participatory practices and institutional limits which could be turned into a chain for citizens or self-censorship system for users. Therefore, it is quite important to consider the mainstreamed discourse of social media practices. They are not only liberating us, but also they are teaching certain rules, regulation and content as well.
Underground media is one of the aspects of alternative media that I was stimulated not just because of its ‘free’ discourse but also, in practice, it is the living organism to empower group of people, idea or ideology.
In this entry, my concern will be mostly shaped by regarding to operational power of the underground media outputs such as fanzines, posters and flyers. In particular, fanzines have a potential to activate group of people because it can be most propellant power and motivative figure in the social organizations. For instance, in the early 1900’s, group of feminist woman was organized around the fanzines and music. They were called as riot girrrl and they were radical feminist, they were against hierarchical order of the society but also they were criticizing professionalism in the music industry so that they were producing music alternatively and their lyrics was empowering women in the conditions of dispersed inequality. Fanzines were their manifestations and their attempt to get people in their riot.
Mainstream media industry organized around powerful dominant group. In this case, women were excluded in the gendered social world and also, both media industry and music industry shaped by patriarchal agents. Discursive practices were so productive to create and dominate inequalities with legitimizing exploitation of the women body. Therefore, media preferred to reify feminist, liberating discourse of women in the media texts. Therefore, these radical organizations of woman need their own, free press system and fanzines were quite proper to circulate their ideas both in terms of its cheapness and free organizational system without advertisements of capitalist industry.
In this case, riot grrrl movement benefited from the underground media especially by fanzines to create and empower woman in the music industry and gendered social system because they could create their own liberating discourse to publicize woman exploitation and domesticity, violence, unfair patriarchal system, gendered division of labour and so on.
Alternative media is the common contrast in the circumstances of binaries that both distinct and integrate different forms of social reality. This type of media mainly attempts to construct a space in order to criticize mass media and empower citizens with considering function of media as a public model.
The most obvious reflection of me is that there were incredible numbers of definition to express what is ‘alternative’. Even though, they might have particular differences in itself but it is quite difficult to make a distinction between those alternative media approaches. For instances, radical media, activist media, tactical media are one of the title of those approaches. Yet, they actually could be seen as fundamentally in the same way because their main attempt is highly clear that aim to construct news to support social reality and support citizen rather than to fund power holders. My primitive reflection might be quite manifest so that it is more important to comprehend reason of those distinction in a much more sophisticated way.
Discussions between those different alternative media segments illustrated that they are focusing on some different partial of the term ‘alternative’. For instance, one of the reflections while caring the expression of ‘democratic potential’, other approach could care about socialist possibilities, participatory communication or alternative as a form of art. Therefore, it is difficult to argue that they are same in general because different alternative media units strive to create meaning with their approaching to term alternative.
Consequently, the most adequate argument can be conceptualize within the realization of different forms of alternatives and also those distinctions demonstrate that alternative is a vigorous term that have a potential to embody different forms of meaning throughout the dominant social strata. Therefore, this divided parts of the alternative media approaches could not be articulated in one dimension.