What the Online Revolution means todays life


Today, if we talk about Online Revolution, undoubtedly it appears with the Internet because Internet which provides people an environment, a space to gather around for any reason. Actually, Internet which is new connection way ,rather than telephone, fax etc,between people wherever they live. As they come together onto Internet with each other, they become powerful because the powerful not only measure number of people, but also their ideas, their rebellions, their resistance increase because they combine, organize in an effectively way.

And I want to give way some examples in terms of online revolution in different countries.

Author who gives example Yemen movement. This movement which is conducted by many young people in Yemen through social media. Why this movements give momentum because of Facebook group users sprang up spontenously. One of the popular one group called ‘ Yemeni Anger Revolution’. Number of its members are 20.000. On the other hand, Yemenis who use twitter and they started to organize protests with people who are from different countries. On the other hand, authors give way to other countries to create revolution through social media. In Bahrain, many onlive activists who open hashtag , they upload videos, pictures. They create blog which is called Global Voices . Also, one of the activists who share her bad experience toward police and share video to show how police behave to her.

In Algeria, authorities who stop and delete, limite some Facebook accounts and because of this reason protesters who come together towards attitude of state authorities.

In Morocco, protesters who create ‘Movement of Freedom and Democracy’ and their members are 89.000. Their aim to make peaceful protest. The protesters underline that ‘Violent protest is usually not fruitful, especially when you have a peaceful and modern medium you can express yourself and your problems.’

In Iraq, protesters come together for resisting poverty and corruption onto their Facebook group which is called ‘Iraqi Streets for Change’. Young people in Iraqi who express their opinions through social communication and they make connection  Tunisia and Egypt because their movements effect onto Iraqi young

In Syria, there was a big problem because authories not only prevent blogs but also create fear onto bloggers because they jail one of the blogger who is 19 years old. Her blog content relates with the suffering from Palestinians. After then, young people who are in Syria create Facebook group which is called ‘The Syrian Revolution 2011’ and the follower number is 24.000.

In Saudi Arabia, activists who encounter pressure of authorities because they react same thing like other countries, they block Facebook and blogs and control over people who are especially activists. In order to react authorities activist who hold a place ‘Saudi Revolution 20 March’. They contact with Tunisia and Egypt and they provide mobilisation between youth to take an action. They protested on the street in dates of 6 th, 11 th, and 20 th March.So these show that how online revolution start to effect with participating people and reaction of them to authorities. (I take information from this link:  http://www.channel4.com/news/arab-revolt-social-media-and-the-peoples-revolution )

http://egyptucb.weebly.com/:  In this link, author who penetrates and give detail information about Egyptian Revolution. This is called ‘Facebook, Twitter or Social Media Revolution’ The Egyptian people who hold a place in social media, especiall last 5 years, but in the period January and February 2011, the usage percentage of Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, blogging websites increased and mainstream media hold a place at the backpart of this and the participation number of social media start with small number and then it increased day by day and the effectiveness of this revolution is affected by Tunisia revolution in terms of economic social factors.

so these examples show that how revolution through online become pwoerful day by day towards state and this shows that how resistance of people spread one country to another.

In conclusion, online revolution provides firstly with Internet and people who have Internet access come together to resist towards powerfuls, problems in terms of economy, social justice. They provide connection, and this connection happens under common goals because they want to react something and they receive support of one another under creating groups onto Internet especially social media. If I compare revolution in mainstream to online, there is many differences, because as people want to share protests or activists opinions, they easily connect to the Internet and share with other people whose place doesn’t important. Also, in mainstream media, as media patronage accept or not, they encounter  pressure of authorities , they don’t imply freedom of speech, they set agendas in mainstream media and manipulate people according to specific ideologies but in online, everyone has right to organize other people and say everything about any issue  so online revalutions which cause antagonism environment toward powerful, authorities but it is a positive frame to see democractic scene.






What We Understand From Citizen Journalism?

Citizen Journalism

Before I start to talk about citizen journalism, I firstly give way to defitions of it. One of them is ‘Citizen journalism is the gathering, writing, editing, production and distribution of news and information by people not trained as professional journalists.’ (http://www.uncp.edu/home/acurtis/Courses/ResourcesForCourses/Journalism/CitizenJournalism.html)  The other  definition is ‘Citizen journalism is seen by  some as an antidote to the widening information gap in societies where traditional news media–print and  broadcast–are in decline.’ (http://cima.ned.org/sites/default/files/CIMA-Citizen_Journalism_Report.pdf) I think that citizen journalism which predominantly appear with the Internet and improvement of technology  because with the Internet which is huge space and create environment for self expression behalf of citizens to promulgate their voices about dissimilar issues. With the improvements of technology citizen use cell phones, computers, tablets to share something. Also, this climate which shows opportunities to citizens.One of the opportunity is to discrimate from mainstream media because in mainstream media people must proffesional writers and they are trained and through citizen journalism,it isn’t important to become  proffessional or not they write whatever they want because there isn’t any limitation or some criterion onto people about what they should be writing. In addition to this, they have freedom to write which unfolds that they are producer and creator about their writings, photos, videos and other things to their interests because they have chance to discuss issues according to their perspectives and the resourse of news are citizens and this is how citizen journalism start to appear.  In addition to this, citizens who set their agendas as they select issues to talk about onto them.

I want to give some examples of website of citizen journalism;

One of the example is that Harass map which is a new social initiative to help restore Egypt’s tradition of public safety for women using an SMS reporting system for sexual harassment to change its social acceptability, spread awareness and revitalize the public movement.

The other example from Egypt. The example is Shayfeen.com which is a popular movement working on monitoring the legality and integrity of the elections in Egypt, through participating via a wide ranging web of Egyptian volunteers.


My last example about citizen journalism is from Tunisie. The wensite which is called Nawaat.org. It is an independent collective blog hosted by Tunisians. It gives voice to all those who, through their civic engagement, spread awareness through media coverage. Our editorial decisions are guided by concerns that affect the lives of our countrymen and our fellow man.


(This informations are taken from : http://storify.com/oms2012/best-practice-examples-for-citizen-journalism-site)

On the other hand, there are some disadvantages of citizen journalism. Yes, Internet is vast amount of information because there isn’t any pressure on citizens to write something and they have chance to write whatever they want in terms of economy, politic, social problems, education etc. I think that this cause information complexities which mean as people read or see, they don’t seperate that which information is true or not becasuse information that citien share is so subjective. The other one is citizen who take hold of freedom of expression and they react something in a harsly way, they criticize brutally and maybe say bad things to other person or things and I think that this situation sometimes cause unrespectful environment.

In conclusion, development of Internet and technology which creates more democratic, participatory environment behalf of citizens in the journalism area. It unfolds that freedom of press, flow of information, mass distribution. With the citizen journalism citizen who don’t only share something in a freely way but also they manipulate people to have an idea about issues and provide take an action about issues. I think that this freedom fetches threat out of advantages side because everyone has right to write and this cause increasing of their aggressive attitudes.











(WEEK 8)

Before I start to talk about media activism, I want to unfold what activism means and what social movements are and then I talk about this issue behalf of alternative media.

Activism is quite simply taking action to effect social change; this occur in a myriad of ways and in a  variety of forms. Often it is concerned with ‘how to change the world’ through social, political, economic or   environmental change. This can be led by individuals but is often done collectively through social movements. (http://www.permanentculturenow.com/what-is-activism/)

Social movements  are purposeful, organized groups striving to work toward a common social goal and social movements happens not only in one country but also actualizes from country to country, region to region, culture to culture, social issues in terms of political, economic, educational and they are categorized with local, state, national and global. In addition to this, social movements are examined under four types which are called ‘Reform Movements’ . Aim of this movement changes social structure. ‘Revolutionary Movement’ which wants to change every aspect of society. The 1960s counter movements are exampled by link which I examine because 1960s movement is anarchist movement. ‘Religious/Redemptive Movement’which aims is to provoke spiritual growth in individuals. The last one is ‘Alternative Movement’ which focuses self-improvement and change individuals behaviour. (I summarize these informations from this link: http://cnx.org/content/m42945/latest/?collection=col11407/latest )

These are firstly I underline activism and social movements so activism and social movements doesn’t appear now it comes from past because people who encountered problems, and wanted to propagate in order to defend their own right, in order to promulgate their voices through protest for organizing collectively. If I give example from history, ‘Anti-consumerism’, ‘Arab-spring’, ‘Ecology movement’, ‘Human right movement’, ‘Women’s Liberation Movement’ were some examples of how activist people took an action for creating social movements .( I take some names of  social movements from (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_movements)

Now, I want to take hand that how alternative media makes a contribution behalf of social movements and activist people. Especially, in social media, which are modern version of terms of Habermas (public sphere). My first example is avatar activism. In this activisim is conducted for serving guy rights in USA in 2009. What social media users is that they change their avatars at the same time for showing logo of guy rights. Its effectiveness were argued because it didn’t measured but this shows that how people take an action for guys and make contribution for enlarging their rights to take attention of other people to their rights. (I drew upon this informations from http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/us-news-blog/2013/mar/27/social-media-gay-rights-avatar-activism)

On the other hand, in this link, writer who talks about higher percentage of  using social media since 2008. Yes, the writer talks about how American people especially adults who has posted links about political issues and he gives statistical information about portion which started with %33 and then increases %69 online population and the crucial point which writer want to take attention of readers is ,that social media users  in USA who participate political meeting around Interned and talk about problesm, higher education and their economic condition is so good than non user of social media to talk about political matters. (I benefited from this link before I summarize information (http://www.nextgov.com/technology-news/2013/04/social-media-activists-are-wealthier-more-educated-and-rise/62789/)

Lastly, I give crucial information from article about ‘Social Media Activism from Malaysia and Pakistan’ behalf of social media activism particularly taking hand of Twitter. In this esay, what writer want to examine is to see behaviour of social media activists and sharing issue of media activist from different regions of the world. Writer who take hand 70 Malaysian twitter and 118 Pakistani twitter. What writer did is that looking for content of twitter, retweeter of tweeters.In addition to this, writer aim is to show how people share and talk about political issues and their interests and at the end of the statisques they see that how Malaysian and Pakistani people share same issue through Twitter . As I read this paper, I want to combine theoretical terms of Marshall McLuhan which time space compression. What I mean is wherever people live, they have chance to share and have an idea about what other people thing about different issues in terms of dissimilar topics without boundries. (Link : http://www2012.wwwconference.org/proceedings/nocompanion/wwwwebsci2012_qureshi.pdf)

In conclusion, social movements, activist people which hold a place world which we live because people organized for resisting something for rights, for laws, for political issues, for socio- economic application, justice and education . All these issues happens in our inner life  but every day many things happen and people try to adapt something or against them. Particularly,  with the media people start to awake and want to have an idea about every issue. They search , they take place in the Internet what other people think, how they make a contributions about dissimilar issues. Before movements actualize, they organize, establish contact with them in an easily way because they build networks to take an action collectively and create democratic environment according to their benefits so this is positive and general perpective todays life behalf of media activism, alternative media activism but the question comes to my mind are they effective, are they draw a conclusion as they want to because in behalf of alternative media activism, issues are temporary because people make an effort in a short time, they express their points of view in a freely way , they support movements which available their lifestyles, their ideologies,their political views and they react but I think that many of them don’t mirror their reactions physically in spaces or how many of them take responsibility in a seriously way and because of this reason there is an artifical environment and the effectiveness of movements open discussion.








6- M.Atif Qureshi, Arjumand Younus, Lay Ki Soon, Muhammad  Saeed, Nasir Touheed, Colm O’Riordan and Pasi Gabrielle


What E-Democracy Connotes in our lifes?


                                                                                                                       (WEEK 7)

There are many definitions of democracy for people or citizens. Generally, it means that it is right for say opinions in society in a freely way about different issues in terms of economic, social justice, political or education etc. As people who want to say something in democratic frame, there isn’t any restrictions, pressures, obligations on people. When we look at how  democratic society is conducted behalf of politic, people who have right to vote about one political party which get along well with their mentalities. After they voted, parties which are enumerated according to percentages which is one of the most important indicator of what democratic society means in todays life condition so these are showed that what democracy is before I penetrate that what e-democracy is. The concept of  e-democracy which enters to our lifes with improvement of technology. With technology particularly improvement of Internet, new information age was start because not only communication styles of people change, which means they interact, talk with each other through mail, through social media, they organize collectively, they react something more than that their daily life, they hold a place in different areas, organizations in the Internet to promulgate their voice and it unfolds new democratic environment for citizens because they participate to say something, to express their opinions. Actually, this new democratic environment is arguable because in order to create e-democracy, there should be people who have Internet access. In addition to this, political condition is so crucial in terms of using Internet behalf of Information Communication Technology to reach people or to have knowledge them but there is an obstacle when I think e-democracy because everybody has no Internet access or don’t know how to use it and because of this reason we don’t generalize e- democracy that this is available for every person to reach them.  I want to give examples from the world. In Newyork, South Bristol, deputies who asked their citizens about building new fire brigade. Portion of acception is %30, and assembly which continued their researchers with mail in order to provide big participation of citizen.

In Malaysia, the e-posta system encircled around Malaysia Net. The writer, who is called Sang Kancil, who haven’t chance to publish their wrtings in Malaysia. And he started to write his opinions about this issue in e mail which includes 800 subscribers. Also, these subscribers write their  spread their thoughts in their country about politics after they write, politicians who defend and corresponds claims which subscribers write about themselves. This example is so effective about how Internet exaggerates limitations.

In England, December 1997, there was applied campaing which was called ‘Have Your Say’ and this was good example about participation. Also, in February 1998, there was taken feedback of citizen during preparation of ‘Freedom of Information Act’.(I take these examples from this link: Page 257-258 : http://www.siyasaliletisim.org/pdf/edemokrasiyegecis.pdf )

I add some informations to these. Lucas Walsh who gave conference about what e-democracy is Sdyney in 2004. He investigates e-democracy according to four types. e-government services and administration; participatory technologies; informal modes of participation using the Internet; and mass news media. The first type is about goverment who gives information, have knowledge them about what is going  on in country about every issue, about obligations, laws, social issues through Internet in terms of specific system to their citizens in order to provide democracy. Walsh gives example Austriali. E-governance is most developed than other countries. According to this, Austrialian people who have an idea about taxation, have an idea about every discussions of politicians through website . The second one is about voting in a formal way. Because of voting, participation enlarges. For example; The Citizenscape website of  Western Australia promotes active participation in involvement in decision making and informs about citizenship related activities.( Page 4) The third type is about individual blogs, and Hactivism which isn’t formal like first and second types of  e- democracy. Especially, in personal blogs, people who write their thoughts independently way because  blogs which implicates their inner worlds, their reactions what the issue is but on the other hand, Hacktivism is different because they take hold of information , web pages or they damage. In the fourth type,news media which disseminates information. It has many channel spread knowledges to people. Sweden, for example, has formally recognised the “problems with the Swedish mass media in contributing to the public sphere by fulfilling the democratic indicator of enlightened understanding” (Rothstein et al. 1995) so I try yo summarize informations from article.

As I look at Turkey behalf of e-democracy, it isn’t possible to say available environment for it. The first obstacle is that political condition because our political environment rulership party doesn’t allow people to say their ideas, opinions even if  we live in a democratic country. What my example about is this, in mass media , the number of contest programs are so limited and also people who hold a place there and who can’t talk about political problem in a freely way. Also, the year before our rulership party close personal blogs during two days because some blogger who criticize rulership ideology so yes we live in democratic country because we vote and then percentages which talk behalf of political schema and manipulate our lifes but after voting, there isn’t any resistance, any promulgation of ideas of people  so  ironic situation occurs because rulership party gather around an assembly, decide on issues, talk and discuss them and then  approve them  in terms of viable conditions without asking public, or individuals so I think that Turkey which should be progressive about an issue of e-democracy. After maybe 4 or 5 years, the conditions are available for conducting e-democracy in Turkey.

In conclusion, today, there are many applications and examples of e-democracy in some countries. Some of them which I give way successful but it isn’t generalizable or applied every country because of political conditions, politicians who manipulate peoples life and their decisions is determining. If they don’t apply e-democracy, people have no chance to hold a place , react independently and act collectively through Internet and what advantages of e-democracy is that which fetches interactiviness- attractiveness, enlarges communication possibilities, disseminates informations between people, establishes comprehensive relations but on the other hand there should be two things which is answered to talk about e-democracy how we talk about e-democracy if people don’t use Internet and how we talk about e-democracy if political hands don’t want to take an action towards problems,issues with their citizens?






Artwork And Movements Behalf Of Alternative


I want to start with crucial points from article which is called ‘Art, Aesthetic, Radical Media and Communication’. In this article, the concent encircles about relations between art and media. In order to evaluate this relation, there are three movement are evaluated. These are called Dada movement, Surrealists, and Situationists. How these are shaped was that in terms of war,  political events  so through these movements, we come to term ‘art work’.  According to Walter Benjamin (1973)  ‘artworks which in the era of technical reproducibility.’ On the other hand, Bertolt Brecht and Erwin Piscator who injected a series of new dimensions into theatrical performance during the 1920s. They worked in Germany. Also, their works reflected to films so undoubtedly, what I learn from this article is that yes there were some movements which were shaped by political conditions and reacted situations and then we get access to artworks and we see creative paintings which are meaningful for painters.

Now, I want to give knowledges about movements from different sources to have and idea. Dada movement was the first one and I think that which enfoulded shaping other movements.. Dada emerged in Germany in 1916 as a collaboration between artists of several nations including Germany, France, and Switzerland. Initially, it was conceived as an anti-war art movement, and much of the early work takes the form of protest art. The movement chose the name “Dada” by inserting a slip of paper into a French dictionary and choosing the word it landed on, which happens to mean a hobbyhorse or child’s toy. (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-was-the-dada-movement.htm) Also, I give one example of Dadaism. The link is here to see  (http://www.dadart.com/dada-media/Max-Ernst-At-rendez-vous-friends-1920-p.jpg) In this picture, there were crucial people who were from different areas like politician, balet dancer, physicist, philosopher from different angles who were defragment in the same place so if I evaluate dada art, there won’t be any special rule which apply in paintings from dissimilar drawing. It isn’t react something although it emerged in war time so according to dada, we have chance to dissimilar paintings from painters’ point of view.

The other movement,after Dada, was Surrealism. The Surrealists movement was founded in Paris by a small group of writers and artists who sought to channel the unconscious as a means to unlock the power of the imagination.(http://www.theartstory.org/movement-surrealism.htm) It is different than Dada movement because it uses Cubism, it engages with unconscious because they want to reflect unconscious thing to their paintings and especially they were inspired by Freud.

I want to give some examples about Surrealist picture. And then I evaluate their common points.

1-      (http://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/surrealism/images/SalvadorDali-The-Persistence-of-Memory-1931.jpg),

2-      (http://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/surrealism/images/MaxErnst-The-Elephant-Celebes-1921.jpg)

3-       http://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/surrealism/images/ReneMagritte-The-Son-of-Man-1964.jpg).

so what common characteristic of this painting are they are shaped in terms of different things and they aren’t relevant to each other. They show to us out of familiar things and I think that they represent to think our world, things which we know from dissimilar angles. It isn’t service specific purpose but they work to budge on their paintings with their unconsciousness.

Last movement is called Situationists. They originated in a small band of avante-garde artists and intellectuals influenced by Dada, Surrealism and Lettrism.  The Situationists increasingly applied their critique not only in culture but to all aspects of capitalist society. (http://www.artmovements.co.uk/situationism.htm) so if I compare Situationists to other movements, it is quite reactionary and I think it is more realistic picture than others because it shows us that realities of the world which we live in in terms of economic frame.

As I think that relatedness of these movements behalf of alternativeness, it encircles with colours, drawings. It isn’t any written thing , defenders of these movements reflect their ideas, their opinions, their inner world to us whether we understand or not. Also, they show us to creativeness because it is subjective because it isn’t restricted in any way. Especially, for example Dadaism, it combines things or people in the same picture but some people don’t understand what its meaning or what it implies for us. On the other hand, Surrealism is so meaningless because it defragments components which are irrelevant with each other and represents to us utopic picture which won’t realize and won’t see in real world. Actually, it detachs us from real world but generally, according to these movements which were developed by painter and shaped in terms of specific issues and so  we see that how people use their own perpectives and use their reflections to their paintings about our social life so what they represent to us is alternative works behalf of dissimilar contents with paintings but at that time defenders of these movements reflect or react but today is it possible to say that they are free , they don’t encounter pressures?








I  begin  my writing with films. Actually, films which carry away us to different world some of them real but some of them are fancy and they are categorized in terms of issues like drama,comedy, war, we don’t only watch, we see that and have an idea about cultures, customs, traditions peoples, cities,  which hold a place in the world and we have chance to make sense about these issues. Firstly, I take hand Turkish films which means that  how they hold a place  within Turkish people life and then I give way to how Turkih televisions enter to our lifes and give some examples about first broadcasatings.

First film screening was shown at Palace during 1896 during II. Abdülhamit by Bertrand.  First years of  Turkish films were  foreign movies. In 1914, ‘Ayastefanos’ taki Rus Abidesinin Yıkılışı’ which was accepted as first Turkish documentary film and which was shooted by Fuat Uzkınay. This film takes place in this link in a shortly ( http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3JwchoxBawY ) Especially, until republican period, films’ content about First World War. In this sector, Muhsin Ertuğrul  acceded film company at 1922 and who was crucial person up to 1950. He shooted more than 30 films. Some of his films were called Ateşten Gömlek (1923), its content was about Turkish War of Independence. First sound film was İstanbul Sokakları (1931) and Bir Millet Uyanıyor ( 1932). After 1950s, it was started to shape Turkish cinema language slowly. In 1952, ‘Kanun Namına’ was turning point of Turkish film in terms of its recital method, its player, location which film. In 1960s, film was effected negatively because television entered to our lifes . While cinema penetrated social and economic issues in 1970s, and in 1980s, cinema took hand issues about women and psychological films. After then in 1990s, number of Turkish films were reduce but they were well qualified films. (I summarize these informations and took them from this page : http://www.uzmanportal.com/turkiyede-sinema-film-filim-nin-tarihi-tarihcesi-kisaca-ozeti-gelisimi.html/ ) On the other hand, I want to hold a place that first Turkish film which was broadcasted by TRT in 17 th November of 1968. Its content was suspenser- psychological film. There was a girl who was so jealous, so aggressive and her attitude to other people were so rude. This character was picked by Alev ORALOĞLU. This film takes a place in this link. (First Turkish Film in TRT http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sQWK7W7ct8Y )

Actually, as I evaluate Turkish film according to these informations, there was deficiencies because Turkey which followed developments in this sector from behind of the West. It was shaped by foreign films because it was effected in terms of its technology, its methods, its contents. What I mean is that Turkish cinema didn’t shape itself, it was enriched by other countries  but if we look at today, especially with effects of education, with improvement of tehcnology in terms of visuality, technical equipments, Turkish cinema progresses. In addition to this, there are many successful film directors, many players who develop themselves and produces good qualified films and they not only show their films in local area but also embody Turkey in global area, in some contests or some film festivals. I give some known director and their films which represent Turkish  cinema in all over the world. Nuri Bilge Ceylan (Uzak,2003 / Gegen Die Wand,2004), Fatih Akın, Ferzan Özpetek, Abdullah Oğuz (Mutluluk,2007)

Secondly, I take hand television and give short information about history of Turkish television. Undoubtedly, everybody have television in their home. It addresses to people in different way because its function change. What I mean is that , in the old days, there were news and people followed news thorough Tv but if we compare role of television from past to today , we will see that it has many functions. For example, while we watch news at one channel, on  the other hand, we watch football matches, tv series, talk shows, etc etc. Actually, today we have an idea about what is going on in our country and in the world.

If I look at history of Turkish television, it would started at Istanbul Technical University at 1952 as laboratory work and it was accepted at starting point of television in Turkey. Broadcasting contents were theatre, Western classical music, concer of folk music, health, child, cultural programs but it terminated its broadcastings and attorned its technical equipments to TRT at 1968. At that time, television was seen as education and cultural vehicle by program publishers. I want to take a place  a link which  shows that first broadcasting of TRT in 31 January of 1968 which was test broadcasting from Ankara. (First Broadcasting of TRT : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RX6rS9t-YuY)  but the condition of TRT was changed because with 1990s, there were started to emerge private television and because of this reason TRT fell in step with its rivals and established alternative channels like TRT 2 (culture-art), TRT 3 (spor channel), TRT GAP( addresses to East and Southeast area of Turkey), TRT INT (addresses to Turkish people who live in foreign country) so TRT which was the most important channel in history Turkish television because Turkish people who had chance to watch , took information, had an idea about many things thorough TRT.

On the other hand, first private television started with Star. (This is the advertisment of Star Tv before it broadcasted http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ox9N1XwWYxk )  After then, Show Tv, Kanal 6, Atv, HBB, TGRT, Samanyolu, Kanal D, Kanal 7 and Flash TV which were other Turkish private channels then Star. I give link which showed advertising of Star Tv. There were two speakers who gave information about program formats in terms of contest programmes, football programs etc. They tried to higlight that Star Tv which contributes lots of things to  life of Turkish people. ( I took these informations from publication of Ministry of Education about History of Turkish Radio and Television Pages between 36-41 : http://megep.meb.gov.tr/mte_program_modul/modul_pdf/321GM0025.pdf )

So if I evaluate Turkish television behalf of alternativeness, it was so problematic situation because there was only one Turkish channel and which was managed under many rules and Turkish people didn’t have alternative chance to look another. If private televisions came to our life earlier, point of Turkish people would be so wide because regulations also had an crucial role on them and these cause to prevent themselves to broadcast something in a freely way and cause that people didn’t express their lifes, talk about politics, talk about economics in a freely way. Actually, there was so compulsion on Turkish television. Today, the condition was changed because  number of television increases day by day, their program formats are developed and enlarged and addresses to every people whoever has different life style one another. In addition to this, In Turkey, at the beginning of Turkish television, we won’t talk about independence but today I think that there was return of repressed because people who have chance to more in debate programs, or talk shows even it is limited but the point which Turkish television comes to today condition is so progressive and not easy.

In conclusion, I talk about Turkish cinema and Turkish televisions. Undoubtedly, at the beginning, Turkey was backward and didn’t have available condition in terms of technical, economic, political condition, and the only thing which it did is that follow other development countries and tried to do same thing with them because of this reason Turkey didn’t do original works and today conditions are changed because in Turkey, there are lots of channels, lots of films which do different works, produce many things, reaches many people in terms of penetrating dissimilar content program formats behalf of TV again imitate to attract Turkish people attention but I think that milestone in history of Turkish television and also effect on film is that emergence of private television. If it didn’t, today we will be closed not only each other but also other countries, people , culture in all over the world because its place in our life is undeniable. We travel with them to many place with channel surf and witnesses many things.



In our life, there are coomunication tools which encircle our life. There are different characteristics than one another and radio is one of the tool which people use it in their daily life because it is portable and it doesn’t resembla other communication tool like Tv. Yes, we don’t see people who speak, who sing a song but we establish relations thorough voices. We imagine that for example when Dj talks about an issue. Maybe every people don’t listen radio everyday but for example, in car, in public transformation, in shopping center, in our telephone that we have chance to listen and have possibility to encourage with it. In addition to all of them, listeners who connect attachment with Dj and some programs which are regulated by radio stations. My observation is that as  people who connect radio stations or connect some radio programs to talk more than the other communication tools because I think that people feel themselves good because they have chance to share their opinions, their memories, their favorite musics to hook.

I give some informations about history of radio in Turkey. In Turkey, first radio broadcasting began in 1927 after one or two years which radio broadcasting started in the world. How it started to establish is that with building enterprise.These enterprises were called Türkiye İş Bankası and Anadolu Ajansı.  Its working method is same with BBC and today their working style continue in the same way.  ( These informations are taken from this link: http://www.cayyoluonline.com/friends/haber.php?haberid=266 ) In 1949, there was two radio transmitters in Turkey. In 1949 November, Istanbul radio station begun to broadcasting. Also, ITÜ which started its broadcasting in 1946. (These informations are taken from this link http://www.yazarkafe.com/icerik/305000/turkiyede-radyo-ve-televizyonun-gecmisi.htm)

In this link which shows that  the first radio broadcasting in Turkey in 6 May 1927 . It was at the same time spoken in French language. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EB8wIR6RA40)

Now, I give short informations about weeks article. One of them is Community Radio which is written by Peterç M. Lewis. This article is about Montreal Conference and what this article was penetrated that how community radio emerged and which time it holded a place in our life in some countries. Pacifia Foundation was one of the first moment of community radio and community radio which is referred as reaction to the radio of its own country in this article. Also, language of community radio is different from offical one. There are some countries which are examined in terms of community radio. One of them is Kenya.  Homa Bay who managed and take into account develop communication infrastructure according to local people and their needs. On the other hand, in Bologna, Radio Alice which is use of live telephoned reports from listeners. The example of community radio is also feminist radio which hugely relate with women’s lifestyle so according to these article I have chance to see that how community radio was developed all over the world, how it hold a place in people life and continue its works in todays life.

The other article which also penetrates Community Radio at the beginning of the 21 century. It starts with the Community Radio in US. The Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) and National Telecommunication Information Act ( NTIA) which put mechanisms for standardisation of stations. In this article, I see that community radio didn’t emerge coincidentally because there were some events like Baby Boomer, Reagan years and also there are some minority groups effect to shape community radio. What these minorities are African American, Hispanic, and Native Americans. In Western Europe, BBC model is applied and the important thing is that establishment of community radio in 1970s and 1980s. Also, in this article, Community Radio in 1974 and Community Public Radio in 1999 were investigated under some criteria in terms of governance, origination, format, funding, audience and identity. According to these table, undoubtedly, differences are seen and meanings, functions of them change also with effecting of commercial radio.

If I evaluate todays condition behalf of radio, with the improvement of technology, which effects expanding broadcasting network, which means that wherever we live, we stand, we have chance to reach radio which doesn’t only means we listen radio but also radio stations which have agenda and set some programs, ıt has news programmes and call some people like academician, like singer, like psychologist, like actors to talk about every issue to give knowledges to people who listen them. In addition to them, radio stations which address not only big cities but also local people. Yes, some of them establish and reach all parts of the Turkey like PowerTürk, Kral Fm, Trt Fm but on the other side some radio stations which are established in specific borders and don’t address whole Turkish people. For example; Radyo Ege which addresses to people who live in Aegean area;  Radyo Mercan, Radyo Akdeniz which addresses to people who live in Antalya;  Radyo 5, Radyo Bursa which addresses to people who live in Bursa. There are many examples of these radio stations from all parts of Turkey. (I learn some of these radio stations from this link. http://www.sinemamuzik.com/HaberDetay.aspx?HaberID=6286) Their common characteristic is that regulate their program contents according to local people. In addition, we listen radio everywhere but with entering Internet to our life we listen radio thorough online. We have chance to comment through their social media account. For my opinion, radio is special communication tool,  even if we don’t see people who speak or sing a song , we imagine and this characteristic of radio is depart itself from other communication tool and I think that people who establish cosy relationship with speaker, Dj or other person.

In conclusion, radio which was long history in our life, it was so crucial communication tool in the past before television and technology was  enter to our lifes but today maybe its number of target audience decrease according to my observation because people have fast life, they use mobile phones for communication and it substitudes and manipulates our communication style, communication processes and also communication vehicles are effected so many people who don’t prefer listening radio in their daily life and because of this reason radio loses its importance but for my opinion radio provides people to talk more , share their ideas with other people who don’t see, don’t react or don’t answer to them, maybe this characteristic effect peoples preference to not listen radio but for my opinion attachment with radio is so special for followers or listeners of radio than other communication tools.

What UnderGround Press is?


I firstly begin with the meaning of underground press then I give some examples of journals which are associate with underground press, as I talk about them I give way articles of under ground press . If I think about meaning of underground press, it includes freedom of speech, free to write opinions to become independent without seeing limitations and restrictions.Actually, it is war of thinking because it shows alternative to right and digress what traditional media penetrates issues and manipulates people to think in one way especially in traditional media, it isn’t possible to react, or produce counter opinions because they can’t allow people to think in other way. I think that if  I talk about underground press, it is shaped according to some specific opinions, ideologies, counter thoughts like journals of leftist or right, like feminists who defend women rights to men, like environmentalists who call people to take care their environment,to take precautions for global warming, like university students who oppose to political hands, like trade unions who want to establish their rights to powerfuls but the important thing to establish, undoubtedly people who participate in this area is so crucial because many of them work voluntarily because of limited budget and it is so crucial to hold people in one place in terms of good management.

If we look at Turkey, yes there are some examples of them, they try to survive towards many problems such as economic and political or social. What my examples are; Kurtuluş Sosyalist Dergi which was start to publish at 2001 and its main purpose is to create communist working class , defend rights of working class and generally accentuates difference of communist ideas. In its publication, also they hold a place elections, politic crises, Kurdish issue, democratic issue of working class, globalization, capitalism etc so it continue to its existence today(I take these informations from     http://kurtulussosyalistdergi.awardspace.com/index.htm) The other example about underground press from Turkey is Pazartesi Journal. Its target audience is that women. This journal was started to publish at 1995 and it provided material support from Frauenansiftung, which is established in Germany. Why I hold a place its journal is that because its contents depend on feminist opinions and try to provide support of feminist movement by women . It includes that women’s lip. Its purpose is that defend womens right to men and aggrieve hegemony of men in a harsly way. ( I have an idea about this journal from  http://www.pazartesidergisi.com/index.html ) Undoubtedly, there are many journals but some of them that I give place because they separate from other fashion or cooking journals with its ideologies, and visions.

My last example about underground  press is caricatur journals. In Turkey, especially Leman, and Penguen which are humorous type of journal.Their purpose is to react decision of political hand in terms of economy, education, health, environment etc. These humorous journals are independent. Their  first purpose isn’t to purchase money but they show their reactions and I think that they are voices of people who don’t react situations of Turkey in a freely way, I think that many people who read Leman and Penguen support and encourage themselves to talk about issues, problems in Turkey in their daily life. (http://www.google.com.tr/search?hl=tr&safe=active&q=leman%20dergisi%20tepki&psj=1&bav=on.2,or.r_qf.&biw=1366&bih=667&um=1&ie=UTF8&tbm=isch&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi&ei=5_9FUdW-A7TE4gTw8YGwAQ#imgrc=l4vWyUii6EXgpM%3A%3B-0t-IjcF-lBJPM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Ffotogaleri.haber7.com%252Finner%252F%252F749320110802111649218.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.haber7.com%252Fdergiler%252Fhaber%252F769834-leman-korkusunu-kapak-yapti%3B493%3B574) : In this link, we see that how our ruling part has which type on ideology on military men so these are examples about underground press.

Now, I shortly give way to some articles from our syllabus.I The first article which is written by Gholam Khiabany and it is called Red Pepper. It is montly magazine but what its difference is that it takes hand leftist opinion and it is advanced by Comedia and it  was placing itself within an influential current of left political thinking in Britain.( It is taken from article) Also, in this article an author who deals with  the other publication which is called The Socialist and which is shaped in terms of Socialist Movement but the most important thing is that author who holds a place that Income and Expenditure of journal and financial problems. As I read all of them, it isn’t easy to manage this type of journal because it should be plan to regulate budget. On the other hand, I see that the importance of advertising in terms of income so what I want to summarize about this article is that yes Red Pepper and The Socialist try to survive for their ideologies and fights with some problems in terms of financial difficulties. On the other hand, the article which is called ‘The Alternative Press’ penetrates alternatives which means variety kinds of magazines which has different contents like hippy magazines. Also, in this article, there are issues which are penetrared in this sector like economic and modes of organization and production and audience. In modes of organization, division of labour, budgeting, planing is so crucial. In audience issue, not only content but also readers, their  educational background, their interest should be thought. In addition to all of them, two magazines are examined which are called New Socialist and New Internationalist and what their differences are that New Socialist which is for Labour Party activists and Labour Movement and on the other hand New Internationalist which is specialist publication and it takes hand development issues so I want to summarize that how these two articles takes into account in terms of alternative press.

In conclusion, I explain firstly meaning of underground press for me and give alternative journals in Turkey and then I shortly summarize two articles. In Turkey, some journals try to survive, perpetuate their ideologies . It is so difficult in Turkey because of political hands but the other issues to continue alternative press is not only budget but also people who are writer gather around in same place is not easy task but I think that the most important characteristic of these alternative journals are to show people that different kinds of issue with different points of view and show varieties for our lifes because it isn’t possible to develop ourselves with traditional media so every people should be this type of journals to have an idea, to learn what is going on about events, people and our lifes but in today condition, it opens to discussion that how many journals take an action independently in terms of their ideologies or opinions through the world ? or how many years that political hands allow them to continue their publications?







I firstly take hand ‘Four Approaches To Alternative Media’. In this chapter, alternative media which are divided into four categories which are called ‘Alternative media, Community media, Civil society media, and Rhizomatic media.’ These four approaches of alternative media which is grasped under two categories. These are media centered and society centered. First approach is the community media . Tönnies (1969)  underlines that community is defined by the presence of close and concrete human ties and by  collective relations but there are some questions to our mind and about geograpy and ethnicity of communities. Actually, it isn’t necessary to  ive in same geograpy and have same ethnicites. because Popple (1995:4) thinks that people sharing a common condition or problem can also be seen as a community of interest.(These are taken from chapter.) Actually, I think that one of the most important reconceptualization about community is Anderson’s Imagined Community because people who don’t see or don’t talk or don’t communicate with each other because media reach them and facilitates their communication processes and they interact with this and their distance isn’t crucial. For example; I live in İzmir and everyday I read newspaper Yeniasır which is local newspaper in an Aegean Era and I read people who live Manisa and there is important societal problems happen even if I don’t see and I don’t talk them, I have an idea people, people live condition, their problems and so media which faciliates that reach news without limitations, space, time, distance. In addition to this, one of the important issue about community media is geograpy and ethnicity . On the other hand, access and participation is penetrated in this chapter. Participation is easy for every people to participate , represent themselves and I think that the most crucial thing is that people shouldn’t become professional writer  to promulgate their voice, to write their opinions without any limitations. Participation, following Pateman (1970:71) can thus be seen as a process in which the individual members have a certain degree of power to influence or determine the outcome of that process and full participation is seen as a process where each individual member of a decision making body has equal power to determine the outcome of decisions so these show that what community media is about. Actually, communities are hold a place in our lifes because people gather around some place in terms of their opinions, their political perspectives, their identities, their jobs of course there are many reasons.For example; political parties in Turkey like CHP, AKP, DSP etc, for example associations like Kardelenler, Toplum Gönüllüleri , Haytap etc. They live all time, they aren’t occur with media but the most crucial thing and different characteristic is that alternative media facilitate and provide active actions between people , establish huge networks between them and gather around through alternative media without meeting same place, without face to face communication with each other.

The other approach is that Alternative media as an alternative to a mainstream media which is introduced in this chapter as distinction between mainstream and alternative media. In this approach, alternative media associates with ideology, domination and Gramscian notion of hegemony and mainstream media which is ideological and it is conducted by the state, politicians, and private sector. As I look these two types of media, there are binary oppositons between them. One of them is free but other is controllable, on the one hand there is an hegemony which relates with hierarchical relations but on the one hand there is non hierarchic relations so there is two different picture as I think. Undoubtedly, many people who defend alternative media because it includes democratic environment, every people have right to talk with each other but I think that it isn’t possible to say that alternative media is dominant than mainstream media especially in Turkey. Yes it is totally relate with political and economy but ruling party which captures Turkish media, sell channels and manipulates their ideologies, their ideas to masses without taking their consent or overrating what public think. For example, SamanYolu, Kanal 7, TRT some best known examples of what ruler party do in Turkey. Even if they don’t have other private channels, they set their agendas and effect their news content about which one is available their interest or not and formulate discourses according to their ideologies in these channels so I think that alternative media is big area which includes networks between people who lives differents parts of the society, or country and they aren’t prevented and they are so free to express their opinions in alternative media if it isn’t adequate power toward mainstream media but I think that war between alternative media and mainstream media won’t finish in terms of politic, economic issues.

Mainstream vs. Alternative Media  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2g0FFlbjj2o: in this link a man who start to talk about Prof. James. Terry,who is Professor of Media, and he takes hand lack of crackle journalism , role of journalists, mainstream media to conspiracy theories. He says that  sixty three of American people believe a conspiracy and he continue with characteristic of traditional media which is unquestionable, untouch, and not personal and not care about people according to him. He shows that International Heralb Newspaper which is an International version of New York Times. He shows some stories and articles. Stories that he show associates with Obama, his plans, his administration, his expectations and his unsuccessfulness about elaboration for the first time. What he says about this issue is there isn’t any discussion about crime, justice, constitution between people , professors, speakers. The most crucial thing which he underlines that an article which is about  Marxism. He say again there isn’t discussion between American people who are in a street. The only thing is that promote Marxism. What I learn or observe something from this video is that yes there is an alternative media which surrounds our lifes with more access but on the other hand, there is real thing which we can’t prevent powerful people who are in mainstream media because they set their agendas and manipulate people opinion about what they should be think and without any rebellion to them.

The other approach which hold a place in this chapter is Civil Society Media. It is explained very ideas of citizenship and examined under two conceptions. One of them generalist conception of Hegel and Marx and other is minimalist conception of Gramsci and Habermas. The best thing to describe civil society is that it is third voice and its place between state media and private commercial media. Girard’s who gives example community radio and he says that community radio listeners are producers, managers, directors an deven owners of the stations. So one question to come my mind. If I look this example, Is it possible to say that community media relate with civil society media? Are they depend to each other? Undoubtedly, there are differences but which characteristic of them discriminate with another so I give example about civil society media. I think that BIANET (Independent Communication Network) is  available example for this type of media. What it means that it is a project  is one of the hubs formed in Turkey in the last decade within the framework of the struggle for freedom of expression and communication. It coming into existence is simultaneous with the huge collapse of the Turkish mainstream media in the 1990s. With 2000, it started to Internet publishing. Why I write this network because people who are Turk or not, or live in Turkey or another country they have chance to write about political, economic , social issues. (These informations are taken from article of Ertuğrul Kürkçü about BIANET) his network neither depend to private hands nor to the state. Their audiences, visitors are publishers and they are independent. They aren’t any restriction on them to write something so this is my example about this type of media. Unfortunately, today it isn’t possible to talk about variety types of and example of Civil Society Media because there are some economic reason behind them but I think in todays capitalist life it isn’t easy to gather people around one space or find volunteer people to write their opinions without paying money and encourage them to write their reactions in todays life condition.

The last approach of the alternative media is Rhizome Media in this chapter. Deleuze and Guattari (1987) enumerate a series of characteristics of the rhizome – the principles of connection and heterogenity, multiplicity asignifying rupture, cartograpy, and decalcomania. Connection and heterogenity imply that any point of the network can be connected to any other point. I think that if we talk about about rhizomic media , it occur with technology. Why I think that if I take hand televisions, for example as I watch Tv, I see people who live distance part of the world, have an idea about what is going thorough the world and have chance to connect, I think that it is firstly realize by TV but after then Internet which networks establish and people who connect with them, they have chance to see each other like Skype. We have communicate and talk with e mail, send photos, send something and reach which people that person live distance part or not so also if I take hand social media, I have chance to contanct with friend who lives Chinese so for my opinion before technology networks didn’t establish between people, country, companies, associations or other thing. Maybe there is limited opportunity, there need to be much time but with technology there is time space compression especially under the rhizomic media and because of all of these one question come to my mind Is Rhizomic media is examined under Network Society?

In conclusion, I talk about the kinds of alternative media which is penetrared in chapter. Undoubtedly, there are different versions of alternative media which have different characteristic one another but mutual characteristic of them is unfolding new world for people because in this world not only people don’t hold a place in this media but also their communication process is more active. As they communicate  with each other, they have right to represent themselves in terms of their opinions, beliefs ,lifes, ideologies etc. In addition to this, they react about any issue in a rapidly way like political, economic, social issues about their countries. I think that the big and most important difference of alternative media is that includes mass participation and there isn’t any elimination between people . I think that this is modern public sphere of Habermas terms. Also, it enlarges, strenght day by day, I think that it will become second world of people and I believe that it ceases to mainstream media and another forces may be in ten years.