Culture jamming is known as anti-consumerist social movements. Adusters is one of the important examples of it. Adbusters is defined as not-for-profit, anti-consumerist and pro enviornment. Some people characterise that as anti-capitalist. It has launched several international campaign such as, buy nothing day, Tv Turnoff week, Occupy Wall Street…
Culture jamming is seen as cultural, political and commercial symbols. It is no doubt that commercial is the best known form of culture jamming. Because that is seen as anti-consumerist social movement. In fact it is a form of activism and against the hegemony of popular culture. there are also political forms of culture jamming.
For instance this picture is an example of political forms of culture jamming. There is an aim of creating awareness against war.
In conclusion, cultre jamming seen on billboards, bus-ads, posters… we can see signs, symbols or advertisements on facebook, twitter or on a street. These can be an example of culture jamming to create a social awareness.
First of I would like to mention why alternative media plays an important role in social movments. It plays a significant role because alternative media is different from tradational media; while tradational media is one-way communication, alternative media presents opportunities to communicate people, share to people their ideas. Not only between people also between activists and organizations, people communicate and informed.
It is no doubt that social movements can be announced easier and faster through internet. Developing of social media, people can easily organize and arrange the movments. . thanks to Alternative media, people, activist and organiztions could find opportunity tor ise their voices. If they were limited with mainstream media, they could not have it. So that reason, we can say that alternative media helps to expand and spread social movements. Because unlike mainstream media, Alternative media does not only report, it also gives opportunities to people to be organized.
In conclusion, we can easily say that Alternative Media create a new form of public sphere. Because Alternative media constituted a democratic space to people. Unlike Alternative Media, mainstream media has some limitations in terms of democracy, such as, censorship, or governments policies. On the other hand mainstream media does not give much opportunities to people for participation. However thanks to Alternative Media, people can participate policies, agenda, or social problems. They can discuss these issues through internet and organize.
First of all I would like to start what citizen journalism is. The definiton of citizen journalism; people who are not journalist and do not depend on any institution, write the events or shere the photes or videos about events on their blogges or web sites. The other names of citezen journalism are partipatory jornalism, eye witness journalism or user generated content. In fact the name of “user generated content” explains the understanding of “user as producer”. Especially with developing of citizen journalism, internet users have became a producers. They make their own web sites, bloggs and they share their news on their web sites.
In fact the term of citizen journalism have been spreaded fastly because today everyone has at least one mobile phone and every mobile phone has a camera. Therefore everyone is a citizen journalist. When we think about news making, it is benefical in terms of journalism. Thanks to citizen journalism and power of internet, people can reach more new story, and Professional journalist make a lot of new stories.
“journalists can’t be everywhere at once and often arrive after the news event has actually happened. In many cases, such as during the Arab Spring, journalists can be banned or censored by regimes and individuals that don’t want stories to be reported. So citizen journalists with camera phones can be our sole source of first hand information.” (Measures, C, The Rise of Citizen Journalism, 2013)
In conclusion, I can easily say that citizen journalism is the best example of “user as producer”. Thanks to internet, people can create their own world, and has transformed a producer. Therefore communication has gained more power. People started to be informed what happen in their world.
Measures, C, The Rise of Citizen Journalism, 2013, http://socialmediatoday.com
It is no doubt that television is exposed to power and economic policies. Therefore television programs, news programs, series etc, are usually censored or self censored. In this instance, public opinion is shaped according to the policy or they are informed incorret or incomplete. For example the ban of broadcating to Reyhanlı explosion. For that reason people have followed that new story from internet. Because internet is less exposed censorship.
Therefore we can easily say that internet become alternative to television. Althoug being television is a mainstream media tool and today people prefer use internet in stead of television, by internet, they can watch several television channels
In fact, thanks to internet, we have more chance to watch more movies. Before internet, there was only television and most of people did not have a chance to go to cinema regulary to watch movies. Therefore people had to wait to broadcat on television. On the other hand thanks to internet people can follow series and tv program seven they do not watch television. They can do it through internet.
In conclusion, with internet, people started not to be limited with television. Because internet present to new way to people to follow agenda so it has became alternative to television.
Radio as a tool of mainstream media. However by developing of alternative media, radio has started to follow to an alternavie way. Besides some alternative radio programs, radio could find place on alternavite media. We can easily search a lot of radio stations on internet.
On the other hand we can easily see that a lot of radio programs has facebook and twitter acounts, that shows us, even radio emerged before TV, finding place in alternative media it has adopted to modern times. When we listen a radio programs, dj always says that “you can post your comment on our twitter and facebook account” or “please follow us from twitter”.
In fact by these stuation, we can see the indispensable of mainstream media and adopting of these mainstream media tools with new technologies.
The other issue is that thanks to devoloping alternative media, people can create thier own radio stations. That gives more opportunities to people especially, new communication graduates. Because especcialy in Turkey, it is very hard to find a job in terms of media sector. Therefore by alternative media, people have gained chance to create their own jobs on internet.
In conclucion, we can see that alternative media does not destroy mainstream media, conversely, it keeps alive and develops that. Especially radio. Although radio is still listened today without alternative media, thaks to internet, people can find more oppotunuties to listen and create radio programs.
Underground media aims to show alternative way. Because it reflects some spesific ideology. So we can say that there is freedom of speech in underground media. However it is important to think about this question: “Alternative to what?” In my opinion it is alternative to current, general stuation in the world. For example; Feminist ideology is a alternative to patriarchal system in the world. Or communist ideology is an alternative of capitalist system. Therefore these ideologies has been reflected through underground media.
When we think about Turkey, we can see a lot of exaples of underground press. Some newspapers such as, Cumhuriyet, Zaman, Taraf, Sözcü etc…All of these reflects one spesific ideolojy. For example, Cumhuriyet newspaper is a Left-wing newspaper. So that reason it criticise AKP’s policies.
Not only press but also there is a lot of examples from television channels about underground media. Such as Samanyolu TV, Kanal 7, Ulusal TV or Cem TV. All these can be examples of it. Let’s think about Cem TV. This Channel represents Alevis in Turkey. On the other hand it has Kemalist ideology and reflects that. Ulusal TV is also reflects Kemalist ideology. However when we look at Samanyolu and Kanal 7,we can see both has relegious ideology. Especially Kanal 7 broadcasts some relegious programs.
In conclusion; Turkey has a lot of examples of underground media. Because when we think about the structure of Turkey, we can see a lot of different ideologies; there are rightist, leftist, kurds, alevis, jewish, feminist, etc… It keeps a lot of ideologies so it is no doubt that must be represented through media organs.