The Network Society

“A network society is a society whose social structure is made of networks powered by microelectronics-based information and communication technologies”
The interdependant relationship between people and instutions are emphasizing by social networks:  I would like to share the report below as the relationship between people and new media that causes wider social change.
—Facebook and Twitter key to Arab Spring uprisings: report
Jun 6, 2011

DUBAI // The most popular Twitter hashtags in the Arab region in the first three months of this year were “Egypt”, “Jan25”, “Libya”, “Bahrain” and “protest”.

Nearly 9 in 10 Egyptians and Tunisians surveyed in March said they were using Facebook to organise protests or spread awareness about them.

All but one of the protests called for on Facebook ended up coming to life on the streets.

These and other findings from the newly released second edition of the Arab Social Media Report by the Dubai School of Government give empirical heft to the conventional wisdom that Facebook and Twitter abetted if not enabled the historic region-wide uprisings of early 2011.

In part by using the social networking sites, activists organised and publicised the unprecedented protests that gave rise to the so-called Arab Spring, which has so far seen longtime governments in Egypt and Tunisia fall, regimes in Syria, Libya, Yemen and Bahrain clash with the opposition, and leaders in Jordan, Saudi Arabia and the UAE offer more benefits to their populace.
Social media – its rise and its new activist uses – have “played a critical role in mobilisation, empowerment, shaping opinions and influencing change,” the report said.

Just how integral its role was has been debated, it said, “with some camps labelling them the main instigators and others relegating them to mere tools.”

“Regardless, it can be stated that many of the calls to protest in the Arab region were initially made on Facebook,” it said. “As the initial platform for these calls, it cannot be denied that they were factor in mobilising movements. Facebook usage swelled in the Arab region between January and April and sometimes more than doubled, the report found.

Overall, the number of users jumped by 30 per cent to 27.7m, compared with 18 per cent growth during the same period in 2010. In the past year, the number of users has nearly doubled from 14.8m.

Usage in Bahrain grew 15 per cent in the first three months of the year, compared with 6 per cent over the same period last year.

Egypt saw 29 per cent growth compared to 12 per cent last year.

Tunisia had 17 per cent growth compared to 10 per cent last year.

The exception was Libya, where usage fell by 76 per cent. One possible reason is that many there have fled amidst fierce fighting between the regime and rebels.

During the protests in Egypt and Tunisia, the vast majority of 200-plus people surveyed over three weeks in March said they were getting their information from social media sites (88 per cent in Egypt and 94 per cent in Tunisia).



This outnumbered those who turned to non-government local media (63 per cent in Egypt and 86 per cent in Tunisia) and to foreign media (57 per cent in Egypt and 48 per cent in Tunisia).

On Twitter, the hashtag “Egypt” had 1.4 million mentions in the three months of the year. Other hashtags – which are essentially search terms – “Jan25” had 1.2m mentions; “Libya” had 990,000; “Bahrain” had 640,000; and “protest” had 620,000.
The flurry of tweets spiralled during the turning points of the uprisings.

In Tunisia they peaked around the January 14 protest start date. In Egypt they spiked around February 11 when longtime President Hosni Mubarak stepped down. And in Bahrain they jumped in the days after the demonstrations began on February 14.

Government attempts to ban such sites ended up backfiring, the survey of Egyptians and Tunisians found.

Just over a quarter of those polled (28 per cent in Egypt and 29 per cent in Tunisia) said the blocking of Facebook disrupted their efforts to organise and communicate.

But more than half (56 per cent in Egypt and 59 per cent in Tunisia) said it had a positive effect, motivating them to press on and mobilising newcomers.

The authorities’ efforts to block out information, the report said, ended up “spurring people to be more active, decisive and to find ways to be more creative about communicating and organising”.


“Myth of Underdevelopment”

I would like to share the link below that is about the underdevelopment :  Michael Parenti — Myth of UnderDevelopment

“The gap between rich and poor only widens because investments in the Third World are not designed to develop the capital resources of the poor nations but to enrich the Western investors.”

  •  Underdevelopment is a condition fundamentally different from undevelopment. The latter term simply refers to a condition in which resources are not being used. For example, the European colonists viewed the North American continent as an undeveloped area: the land was not actively cultivated on a scale consistent with its potential. Underdevelopment refers to a situation in which resources are being actively used, but used in a way which benefits dominant states and not the poorer states in which the resources are found.
  •   The distinction between underdevelopment and undevelopment places the poorer countries of the world is a profoundly different historical context. These countries are not “behind” or “catching up” to the richer countries of the world. They are not poor because they lagged behind the scientific transformations or the Enlightenment values of the European states. They are poor because they were coercively integrated into the European economic system only as producers of raw materials or to serve as repositories of cheap labor, and were denied the opportunity to market their resources in any way that competed with dominant states.


NTV Green Screen

The mass media in Turkey promotes new lifestyles. The TV programmes help to create spesific kind of social changes. The attention of people is gathering with such kind of TV programmes. Modern

modern attitudes, beliefs, skills and social norms are fostering.
 NTV Green Screen creates new kind of social practices that encourages the people to act as respectful towards the nature and cultural inheritance and also presents new kind of healty foods throght the cooking programmes.. Documentaries and projects affect the usage habits, consumption habits of people.

The Political Economy of Communication, Vincent Mosco

In Mosco’s model of political economy, the control and the survival that related with the maintainence of social order are the main point to explain political economy. He focuses on four main characteristic of critical political economy:

  • Social change and history: Political economy continues the tradition of classical theorists, uncovering the dynamics of capitalism,its cyclical nature, the growth of monopoly capital, state apparatus and so on.
  • Social totality: The political economy is holistic that explores the relations among commodity, institutions , social relations and hegemony. It explores the determination among these elements.
  • Moral Philosophy: The analysis of economic system and also discussion of the policy problems and moral issues that arise from it.
  • Praxis: Political economists attempt to transcend teh distinction between researc and plicy, orienting their work toward actual social changes and practice.
the political economy of communications, Janer Wasko

False Consciousness

The ruling class ideology dominate every area of culture, entertainment, TV, book, newspaper, game, fashion and also institutions  as family, religion, education and all patterns of everyday life. The ruling class dominates its ideology through mass media and propaganda in political affairs, news reporting, advertising, public relations. They disseminate ruling class ideas. They capture people’s consciousness and support the spread of false consciousness so people believe and adopt what mass media give them.

Global Vilage,Marshall McLuhan

  •  ‘As electrically contracted, the globe is no more than a village. Electric speed at bringing all social and political functions together in a sudden implosion has heightened human awareness of responsibilty to an intense degree’
  • McLuhan claims that it is the speed of  electronic media which allow us some action and reaction  to global issues at the same rapid as face to face  communication. The rapidity of communication through electric media afecct our sense’s rapid. Through media such as the TV, telephone and the  computer as a part of ‘Internet’, we are rapidly linked together in the all over the world and connect with people at the other side of the world .We reach the people other side of the worl like as our neighbour.We can now hear and see events that take place other side of globe often quicker than we hear of events in our own villages or even families.

Wag the Dog and Agenda-Setting

Agenda Setting shows us powerful effect of mass media. Mass media make an issue more salient and this issue became more important for audience. Media concentrates on a few issues and subjects leads the public to perceive those issues as more important than other issues .Media tells us what issues are important. Agenda-setting is the creation of public awareness. Media shape and  filter the reality. So media don’t reflect the reality.

  • “Attitudes and behavior are usually governed by cognitions – what a person knows,thinks, believes. Hence, the agenda-setting function of the mass media implies apotentially massive influence whose full dimensions and consequences have yet to be investigated and appreciated”

  • Before elections, a spin-doctor and a Hollywood producer join efforts to “fabricate” a war in order to cover-up a presidential sex scandal.
  • Fake war  saliented by media for paying attention of audience and created public awareness about the war. Media shapes its reality.



Hypodermic Needle Theory Istanbul Pogrom 6–7 September 1955

  • According to “hypodermic needle theory”, mass media had a direct, immediate and powerful effect on its audiences.
  •  The mass media could influence a very large group of people directly and uniformly by ‘injecting’ them with appropriate messages designed to trigger a desired response.
  • There is powerful and direct flow of information from the sender to the receiver.
  • The hypodermic needle model suggests that media messages are injected straight into a passive audience which is immediately influenced by the message.
  • The receiver or audience is powerless to resist the impact of the message. There is no escape from the effect of the message in these models.


Istanbul Pogrom  was a  pogrom directed primarily at Istanbul’s Greek minority on 6–7 September 1955.  The events were triggered by the false news that the Turkish consulate inThessaloniki, north Greece—the house where Mustafa Kemal Atatürk had been born in 1881—had been bombed the day before. A bomb planted by a Turkish usher at the consulate, who was later arrested and confessed, incited the events. The Turkish press conveying the news in Turkey was silent about the arrest and instead insinuated that Greeks had set off the bomb.


A protest rally on the night of September 6, organized by the authorities in Istanbul, on the Cyprus issue and the bombing of Atatürk’s home was the cover for amassing the rioters. At 13:00, news reports of the bombing were announced by radio However, most people at the time did not have radios, so they had to wait until 16:30, when the daily İstanbul Ekspres, which was associated with the Demokrat Parti National Security Service(NSS), repeated the news in print.İstanbul Ekspres  printed 300,000 copies (on paper stocked in advance), of which 296,000 were sold. This was far above the newspaper’s average circulation of 30,000–40,000 (by comparison, the best-selling Hürriyet sold 70–80 thousand copies.

At 17:00, the pogrom started in Taksim Square, and rippled out during the evening through the old suburb of Beyoglu  (Pera), with smashing and looting of Greek commercial property, particularly along Yüksek Kaldırım street. By six o’clock at night, many of the Greek shops on Istanbul’s main shopping street, İstiklal Avenue  were ransacked. The material damage was considerable, with damage to 5317 properties, almost all Greek-owned. Among these were 4214 homes, 1004 businesses, 73 churches, 2 monasteries, 1 synagogue, and 26 schools. Over 4,000 Greek-owned businesses, 110 hotels, 27 pharmacies, 23 schools, 21 factories, 73 Greek (and other Christian) churches and over a thousand Greek-owned homes were badly damaged or destroyed.The American consulate estimates that 59% of the businesses were Greek-owned, 17% were Armenian-owned, 12% were Jewish-owned, 10% were Muslim-owned; while 80% of the homes were Greek-owned, 9% were Armenian-owned, 3% were Jewish-owned, and 5% were Muslim-owned



The “Invisible College”


  • Group of American anthropologists, linguists and psychiatrists developed in the 5O’s an alternative approach to « communication » to the « theory of communication » suggested in the late 40’s by Bell Lab’ scientist Claude Shannon.
  • In 1942, Gregory Bateson and Birdwhistell, Hall Goffman, Watzlawich  and others focused on the retroactive, circular model which was proposed by Norbert Wiener.They refused linear model of communication.
  • According to this model, the receiver is as equally important as the sender.
  • They claimed that Wiener‟s model was more suited to studying communication in the social sciences whereas the mathematical model was more applicable to the telecommunications engineers by whom and for whom, it was designed.
  • They developde 3 Hypotheses ;
  1. The elements themselves are less important than relationship between the elements
  2. All human behaviour has communicative value ; mutual relations and responds support vast system of communication.horizantal context of succession of message and their vertical context enable arrive at a logic of communication.
  3. Psychiatric disoreders are a sign of disturbed communication between individuals who carry the symptoms and the people around them.


For Lasswell, propaganda is a tool to gain the support of masses. Propaganda reaches the masses via the communication tool such as telephone, print media, radio and cinema. So media mainly support effective circulation of symbols and it is positioned as powerful tool.Government manages the opinion of masses via propaganda and this technique more economical than using violence or corruption. Also, propaganda is a moral instrument.