Most of the television programes aim to gain profits rather than teach something.There aren’t lots of mass media types which not dependent on advertising or consumer purchase. Maybe some tv channels. İz tv is one of them. It is the first documentary channel of the Turkey. The broadcasting of this channel looks like the National Geographic Channel and the Discovery Channel. The slogan of this channel is “Everything leaves a trace behind”. It hasn’t got any aim to earn lots of money or these kind of approaches. It tries to make informative and instructive broadcasting. It gives lots of information about the different countries through the travel programes and it also gives place independent documentaries which came from the students. There aren’t any big companies behind of this channel for making profits. Spinal Cord Paralysis Association and Shelter Volunteers are the media sponsors of this tv channel. İz tv creates the concept of sincere documentaries. Because lots of people don’t watch too much documentary but this channel reduced documentaries to a simpler state. When you watched, you were learning lots of things about your country also the other foreign countries and at the same time you were having a good time.
“Make no little plans; they have no magic to stir men’s blood and probably themselves will not be realized. make big plans; aim high in hope and work, remembering that a noble, logical diagram once recorded will not die.” Daniel Burnham
Burnham Plan was also known as Chicago plan. Daniel Burnham was the architecture of the Chicago plan. Before this plan, Chicago has got all the characteristics of the capitalist industry city. For example;
- The scale and social qualities of the city started to corrupt and there was also a corruption about the usage of lands.
- Chicago started to take mass emigration from the other cities and the problem of homelessness and unemployment began to increase.
With this plan he tried to fix these problems. And he tried to create a modern urban planning. Chicago was afreshed by him.
And Chicago school started to investigate the problems of the Chicago city. Because with the innovation, there were lots of problems occured in the society. Urbanization and Social mobility were one of the major problems. Chicago school attached importance to these problems.
This video explains the Burnham Plan
According to technological determinism;society is shaped by the technology and “technology is seen as the fundamental condition underlying the pattern of social organization”
Marshall Mcluhan, who is a communication theorist, is also a technological determinist and he said that “we shape our tools and afterwards our tools shape us.” He come up with a discourse which name is “the medium is the message” about the media. According to him media always works on our body and brain. And two of them (our body and brain) are shaping and changing by the media. The concept of the Mcluhan’s media is very different and wide from the other type of medias. Any kind of technology such as garment to the computer, wheel-to furniture, which improves the human emotions and body ability, covers the meaning of the media according to him.
He explains his discourse in his book which name is “the medium is the massage” These following sentences are some part of his book.
” all media are extensions of some human faculty- psychic or physical;
the wheel is an extension of the foot
the book is an extension of the eye
clothing, an extension of the skin…
electric circuitry, an extension of the central nervous system.
media, by altering the environment, evoke in us unique ratios of sense perceptions. the extension of any one sense alters the way we think and act- the way we perceive the world. when these ratios change, men change.”
And this video is about his discourse
The medium is the message-extensions
Economy,transportation,industry,technology and these kind of things are integrated with each other without any boundary with the globalization. According to Appadurai; Globalization is brought away the concept of time and space.
It did it wih the helping of technology. In the past, people didn’t manage to reach the knowledge very easily for example; people didn’t find lots of sources about some subjects or they didn’t see the photographs or videos about the different events from the all over the world. Without doubt they heard or saw these kind of things from the televison or radio or newspapers but the internet is moved these situation in a very different area which name is simulation. All the action films and all the computer games can be given as an example of the simulation. When we watched or played these kind of films or games, we are fascinated and all of the things which we watched are came us so real and we are surprised. This situation is also occurred in the real life. There are lots of events happen in the world like wars, conflicts, starvations and these kinds of events. With the helping of technology,we watched them instantly in our houses like a simulation, they are so close but at the same time they are so far away for us. Globalization is presented us a new world.
New Media Technologies and Alternative Media are very important for creating more democratic public sphere. Firstly we can start with New Media Technology. Internet is one of the example for the new media technologies. A few years ago there was an event in China. The Chinese’s attacked the Uighur`s. These attacks continued a long time and it was showed by the television but after a while, the television started to didn`t broadcast these attack because of the Chinese state. They stopped the broadcast. From that time the local peoples in China started to take photos and take videos about this attack. And they published them to the all over the world by using web sites like Twitter. Chinese state tried to show that these attacks are finished but people`s all over the world take the truth information with the helping of videos and photos from the Twitter. All of these are the results of the internet.But also this event is available for the Alternative media.Twitter also can be given as an example for the Alternative media. Because Twitter is a website like a blog. People write their opinions and their critics about everything. And in this event, twitter is functioned as citizen journalism by publishing these videos and photos.
Citizen Journalism means to give informations over the internet and social network connections about the important social events. These informations are given by the citizens.
Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann ,who is a political scientist, thought that the spiral of silence is not thought without the agenda-setting theory.She believed that public opinion is shaped by the helping of the media. As a result of this, the people in the societies shape their thoughts according to the media and Media is the strongest tool between these two theories according to her (which are agenda setting and spiral of silence)
And in my opinion she is right because agenda setting means to determine the journal.And while media was determining the journal at the same time it emphasized the sound of the majority. Alternative thoughts or minorities are not found any place for themselves in this process and all these things create the spiral of silence.Individulas started to think according to the majority because of fear of isolation and exclusion.
If we give an example from the past;Hitler was convinced the German nation that they are the most powerful race in the world by using the media tools of that period.Some people believed this situation but some of them although did not believe,they keep quiet because of fear of hitler’s management and fear of isolation.They convinced this case.
Radio Days is a very good example for the stimulus-response model according to the messages which was given by the radio and the reactions and feelings of the peoples to the radio messages. Radio Days talks about the golden age period of the radio when the television didn’t hit its mark in that term yet. The film shows the radio effects through the middle-class family. These effects are mostly about the everyday life. The family members accompanied the songs which played on the radio and then sometimes they started to dreaming when they listened a story from the radio and they are also sad and happy at the same time during the listening the news. When they listened good news they are so happy but they can be also unhappy too. For example in the film the little girl fall into the pit and the radio informed to the listeners about this event and at the end the little girl did not found alive although all the pursuits. And also the listeners felt nervous, excited and unhappy because there was war in that years and the radio also informed about the war. All these things show that the radio and the people’s relation connected and interacted with each other. Radio was the only media device in that years and it included an important place of the society. The voice of the radio filled the spaces of the radio listener’s life. Their feelings, point of views about the life and these kinds of things were shaped and effected by the radio.
Good night, and good luck tells about the media life. This film argues the duties and functions of the television and also the television workers and it tries to search and shows the answers of these questions; what is the purpose of the television and how the broadcasting should be done. According to the this film, the television just a luminous cable box if it is not working in a good manner and if it makes just one sided broadcasting because of special benefits. At the end of the film Edward Murrow who is a very famous television journalist and announcer said that about the television; this instrument can teach, it can illuminate; yes, and it can even inspire. but it can do so only to the extent that humans are determined to use it to those ends. Otherwise it is merely wires and lights in a box. Good night, and good luck.
As far as we understood that the influence of the media is very important on the individuals since the past and it seems that it will be more important in the future.
Radio Days trailer:http://www.imdb.com/video/screenplay/vi3283026201/
Good night, and good luck trailer:http://www.imdb.com/video/screenplay/vi2963931417/
One of the most fundamental theory in the twentieth century is the Shannon-Weaver model which is also known as an Information Theory. This theory is very important for the theory of mass communication but at the same time it is also significant for the electronic communication in the world IT. This photo shows us the computer brain and the human brain almost work same according to information theory.
First if we look at the human on the authority of the information process; the source which can be a person or a corporation is transmitted the message by helping the tool. This tool that can be tv channel transmitter antenna or vocal cord. The message which is sent by the first resource becomes the signal. And this signal must be true for the realization of the process. Because in the other process, the receiver tool decode this signal and the decoded code becomes a new message. At the end, the message is delivered to the target. In this picture we can adapt this stencil to the information theory.
As we can see in this picture, the person who make this stencil made a connection between information theory and computer. Thereupon I try to make a connection between two of them. First the brain of the computer manipulates the source so the source is redirected the message for the purpose of it and then it monitors the message so this message becomes the signal and it is followed by the computer of the brain and this signal must be true for the process then it strategizes so the signal is decoded and delivered to the target. At first glance there are not seen lots of similarities between the mechanism of the human brain and computer but when we started to examine extensively, the similarities are started to coming to the open.
Maybe we can say that by looking at these two case, in the future all the things about the social life in the societies will be done by the computers . Because the information distribution almost same between two of them. And also the computer has got more advantages about the information transmission. Because the noise source can be just technical problems in the computers but according to human;traditions,different cultures and all of these kind of things can be caused the noise source. And this provides the wrong message transmission but in the computers except the technical problems there are not any problems.