In comparison of traditional media, new media give a chance to interaction in an media environment. Not only the Internet, many computer-based program, home theaters, DVDs, VCDs many kinds of new media technologies replace in our lives.
First of all, address an issue of internet, internet as a addiction itself. In addition to today individual starts to earn money from internet with many marketing tactics. Many large internet pages use personalized interface to create use and gratification .Those are made personalize in return for small number of money. Moreover big business create psychological need buy something for their target audiences from internet banner and ads, their purposes motive them to consumption.
Inside of Internet-based applications, computer-base application also motives them to consumption. The purpose of selling programs are which are Office, Windows, Photoshop, and so on both motive to consumption of individual initial purchase and invest latent consumption too. Because they can offer constantly updates ones. To sum up new media order to be slaves of people more than old one especially in the market systems.
The concept of modernization is western-centered has been criticized many times especially by the structuralist-functionalist theorists. That the listing is done from top to down after the West is taken as the centre creates some differences between the countries. It is argued that these differences stem from cultural laggings between the countries and that when these are minimized the countries labeled as underdeveloped or undeveloped will develop. The theory of modernization is positioned above the inner social processes. On the other hand, its effect on the third world societies is ignored.
Thus, the courses which exceed the national borders in the last twenty years, which happen within the economic and social processes, can be named as globalization. And this is related with the neo-liberalization. Moreover, within the definition of globalization which emerged in the process of neo-liberalism, it is argued that there is strong tie between this concept and international media. Using of mass media while the center tries to create its pressure is associated with the modernization, and the use of international media is associated with the globalization.
Cultural globalization may be regarded as the basic element of the globalization in the movie. According to the Water;
The symbols which can free the relations in extensive reference guides, and which can be carried easily, and more importantly which are globally seen as tools to meet the human needs take place above the physical formations with this feature. In this way, ‘the material changes become local, the political ones become international, and the symbolic ones become global.’ And this is an indicator of the fact that the globalization of human society depends on how effectively the cultural regulations happen compared to the economic and political ones. ┬
WATERS, M. (1995). Globalization. London: Routledge.
Hannerz also emphasized that;
the importance of the culture when it is thought with the globalization. According to him, the idea of culture has become more important compared to the past by including the differences of a series of ideas and expressions organized more or less, and the most important tools within this process are the common flow opportunities the technology of media has provided. ┬`HANNERZ, U. (1996). Transnational Connections: Culture, People, Places.
After the period of World War 2 communication practices became accelerated and they were supported by countries` governments. In addition foreign policy of ABD and those communications practices are parallel each other. Mass communication was standard and propulsive forces of modernity. Western Country could be adopted their values in to Eastern Countries thanks to mass media. Therefore they could be modern. Modernity and its effects on the Eastern Society still continue. One of the movie it is called Babel have many example the effects of modernity, orientalism so on
Mass media if have control over very few people in the country it can be created some problems. Because content of news type and any other features of new can be controlled by people who have owner of mass media tools. Therefore content of news lose its impartiality. In addition some theorist support that people are not passive in this affective process. They promote that it is ` passive transmitters` . On the other hand according to some researchers people ability to protect affecting which are come from media. Their idea is `active transmitter`. However Lazersfeld point that the affection level of individual depends of their socio economic level that are income , education etc.
Culture Industry can be explained by the way to mass produce goods for a mass of similar demands. However the standards are just set in “manipulation and retroactive need”. They are not for consumers real demands. Standards are used to control of the economy also having power over society by means of technology as well. The crucial point is to be achievement of the technology and culture industries standardization and mass production. Moreover are created connection between art work and society. Technology is not creating this standardization and mass production. Technology has limitless developmental process. Therefore it can be increasing turns the consumer into a freedom less listener rather than the role of an active subject such as radio, telephone.
Information is filtered for dissemination is called GATEKEEPING in the process of publication, broadcasting, the Internet, or some other type of communication.
it is found in lots of fields . They are communication studies, journalism, political science and sociology. Primary it focus on the mass media with its few-to-masses dynamic
Kurt Lewin who was first instituted the theory in 1947. In addition it is still an important theory in the field of mass communication and journalism.
The gatekeeper has a power to decide which information will go forward, and which will not. That is to say a gatekeeper decides which of a certain commodity materials, goods, and information in a social system so may enter the system. The crucial point in this process is gatekeepers are able to control the public’s knowledge of the actual events by letting some stories pass through the system but keeping others out. Sum up they have no control over what we think but have power on what kind of issues we will talk about
The War of the Worlds was an episode of the American radio drama . It was performed as a Halloween episode of the series on October 30, 1938.
The first two thirds of the 60-minute broadcast were presented as a series of simulated “news bulletins”, which suggested to many listeners that an actual alien invasion by Martians was currently in progress. Compounding the issue was the fact that the Mercury Theatre on the Air was a “sustaining show” (it ran without commercial breaks), adding to the program’s realism. Although there were sensationalist accounts in the press about a supposed panic in response to the broadcast, the precise extent of listener response has been debated.
In the days following the adaptation, however, there was widespread outrage and panic by certain listeners who believed the events described in the program were real. The program’s news-bulletin format was decried as cruelly deceptive by some newspapers and public figures, leading to an outcry against the perpetrators of the broadcast. The episode secured Welles’s fame.
Hand cites studies by unnamed historians who “calculated that some six million heard the CBS broadcast; 1.7 million believed it to be true, and 1.2 million were ‘genuinely frightened'”. NBC’s audience, by contrast, was an estimated 30 million.
Robert E. Bartholomew grants that hundreds of thousands were frightened but calls evidence of people taking action based on their fear “scant” and “anecdotal”. Indeed, contemporary news articles indicate that police were swamped with hundreds of calls in numerous locations, but stories of people doing anything more than calling authorities mostly involve only small groups. Such stories were often reported by people who were panicking themselves.
The following are some of the importance of feedback in communication either in a formal or informal setting:
1. It completes the whole process of communication and makes it continuous.
2. It sustains communication process
3. It makes one know if one is really communication or making sense
4. It is a basis for measuring the effectiveness of communication
5. It is a good basis for planning on what next to be done especially statistical report
6. Communication will be useless without feedback
7. Feedback paves way for new idea generation
The Great Migration was the movement of 2 million blacks out of the Southern United States to the Northeast, Midwest and West from 1910 to 1930. Some historians differentiate between a First Great Migration (1910–30), numbering about 1.6 million migrants, and a Second Great Migration (1940 to 1970), in which 5 million or more people moved and to a wider variety of destinations
Between 1910 and 1930, the African American population grew by about 40% in Northern states, mostly in the major cities. Cities such as Chicago, Detroit, New York City, and Cleveland had some of the biggest increases in the early part of the century. Because changes were concentrated in cities, urban tensions rose as African Americans and new or recent European immigrants, both groups chiefly from rural societies, competed for jobs and housing with the white ethnic working class. Tensions were often most severe between ethnic Irish, defending their recently gained positions and territory, and recent immigrants and blacks.
Therefore strat to contribution on how immigrations became integrated US society .I think that the biggest question was ‘why are they integrated US society’ !