‘Media Groups and Their Market Shares in Turkey during Globalization’ from Assist. Prof. Şebnem Çağlar, Ph.D.and Assoc. Prof. Seda Çakar-Mengü, is helpful to understand how media ownership in Turkey has been changed after 1980s.
Which media groups have the biggest market share or how the historical conditions shape their structures?
In contemporary societies the basic cause for the rise of the networks is that the individual’s need of being in contact. At this level of individualization, the use of networks becomes the core concept for improving social relationships.
According to van Dijk ‘At the individual level the use of networks has come to dominate our lives. Counting the time spent on broadcast networks, telephony, and the Internet we can add between five and seven hours of leisure time a day on average in a developed society. Not to mention the hours spent with them at work and at school’ (van Dijk 2006,1)
In his book ‘The Network Society’, van Dijk gives extensive information about how social and media networks constitute a network society.
People are so concerned about what they eat more than ever. Is this situation only related to having a healty life or is it because we read continually about it in newpapers or magazines.
The fact is that the mass media promotes natural lifestyles, healty foods, and organic products. Not only the foods, but also people can find any kind of organic clothes, skin care products,and even cleansers for their houses.
In every television channel there is a program about organic foods and natural lifestyle.And as a result the demand for these kinds of products increase rapidly.
The research about the recent growth patterns in the U.S. organic foods market, which is conducted by Economic Research Service/USDA shows the finding how it increased in recent years. You can find a link below for the said research.
In contemporary socities individuals are surrounded by ‘Lists of number- one hits’ or best-seller albums everywhere. Infact they are all the same.
Leading member of the Frankfurt School Theodor Adorno, who was a sociologist, philosopher, and musicologist, makes critique on popular music since its standardization. In his book ” Studies in Philosophy and Social Science” he emphasizes that “The whole structure of popular music is standardized, even where the attempt is made to circumvent standardization. Standardization extends from the most general features to the most specific ones (Adorno,1941, Vol. IX, No. 1, pp. 17-18).
Also in this video you can find Adorno’s arguments about ‘Popular Music’ and ‘Protest’
Cultural imperialism is much more than just consuming goods, but dissemination of attitudes and values. Watching MTV, eating in McDonald’s, wearing Gap jeans, Gucci bags and so on..as a “cool” superior world power in economy U.S gives more than these. Many cultures around the world begin to disappear and the world is getting homogenized. New trend of the advertisiments in US is no more blonde and blue-eyes stereotypes, but a kind of diversity.
Benetton commercials are probably the best instance for this type of diversity. This is a way of giant corporations attempting the foreign countries with the same marketing technics.
Receiving culture is not always a treat. It may enrich the culture as well but the question is that, whether it is only a tool of marketing, in other words consumerism.
In McLuhan’s most popular book “Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man “, he claims that “the medium is the message” and explains that a medium affects the society in which it plays a role not by the content delivered over the medium, but by the characteristics of the medium itself.
He also proposes two frames for categorizing the media as “hot” and “cool” according to different sensory effects associated with the media.
Hot media are low in audience participation due to their high resolution or definition. Cool media are high in audience participation due to their low definition (the receiver must fill in the missing information).
In other words; hot media requires little information to be filled in by the receiver i.e. radio, film, lecture, print are full of information and allow less involvment or less sensory completion. However cool media such as seminar, telephone, television, which are relatively lacking in information and require a higher sensory involvement of the user and higher participation.
Agenda setting describes a very important and powerful effect of the media.The impact of the media is about giving people what to think about and also how to think about it.
Here is an example from the website of International Agenda Setting Conference about how media decides what is important, what is not.
”There was a perceptible difference between the coverage on the tsunami that hit South-East Asia in December 2004 and the earthquake that hit Pakistan in October 2005. The tsunami received far more extensive coverage in all countries analyzed in both television and print media which in turn affected people’s behaviour in terms of private donations. Public were not aware of the need for help in the earthquake effected region of Pakistan. In Germany, for example, the tsunami received 666 reports in the three TV channels in comparison to 66 on the earthquake. These 666 reports contributed to private donations amounting to $USD178 million while only $USD8 million has been collected for the earthquake so far. ”
As we can see from this example there is an important difference between ”reality” , ” media reality ” and ” public perception of reality ”. Media has a control in our access to the news and information.The mass media determines what we think or worry about.From this website you can find other examples about the subject. www.agendasetting.com
With the lack of parental communication about what children watch on TV, children may develop a wrong perception of reality. This video is about violence in the media and how media can cause negative effects on children.
In my opinion parents should watch Tv with their children or supervise them about what to watch.It is better to inform children about the difference between fiction and the real world.Children imitate almost everything what they see around them.Today television and internet made media influence more wide spread, video games contains more violent ever than before,almost sadistic.Parental guidance plays a crucial role to lower these affects.
An Austrian- Amerikan psychologist and philosopher Paul Watzlawick formed 5 Axioms of Communication in order to describe functioning in interpersonal communication.
‘One cannot not communicate’ is the first axiom in his theory. According to him there is no way one cannot not communicate.We are always communicating; even the silence sends out a message.Verbal or non-verbal, even the lack of action sends a message.Silence may be an implicit message to the others.One cannot respond in a communication,though this is communicating too.
Non-verbal actions send a message too. For example; one can nod to confirm an action.This has a message value too.Or cannot not respond to this communication, it’s a way of communicating too.
Harold Dwight Lasswell, the American political scientist was interested in mainly propaganda,public afffairs and elections.With his well-known formula ”Who says what in which channel to whom with what effect?” is conceptual framework for the functionalist sociology of the media.According to Lasswell there are three functions of communication in society;
1)Surveillance of the environment
2)Correlation of components of society
3)Cultural transmission form one generation to the next
Deutsche Welle –The 2011 Nobel Prize for Chemistry was awarded to Israeli chemist Daniel Shechtman, whose discoveries were intensely questioned before revolutionizing the way scientists conceive of solid matter wrote Sean Sinico.
Who – Sean Sinico
What – The Nobel Prize for Chemistry award
Channel – Deutsche Welle
Whom – Public
Effect –Inform the public about 2011 Nobel Prize for Chemistry
Altough Lasswell’s model is simple and easy,the diasadvantage of his model is the lack of feedback.