The technology is the center of the world in lately. Thanks to the technology we are capable of doing various things and we can try to adapt modern life.
Let’s take a usual day as an example. We get up, we turn the TV on and we read something via our tablet or PC. During the day we work with our computer while we are drinking coffee from coffee machine and so on.
In a technological process we use various types of technologies but the vicious question is that the technology facilitate or limits our world?
Thanks to the advances in technology now we can able to do everything faster than we did in the past. With the industrialization, everything becomes quicker for example via internet we can work and do shopping at the same time. We don’t need an extra time to catch something.
Everything is professionalized in terms of globalization. Where is the real communication and social relations? With the new ‘facebook-type networking system’, people can communicate or follow people who know from the past or even who don’t recognize.
We don’t need to make face to face contact with other people. This is a real big problem of the ‘new global world’.
The process of technology equals to reproduction of collectively shared values and beliefs.(John. B. Thompson,1990) and this collectivity causes to be created new ‘social order’. The process shows us the new world affected by globalization system with all political, economic and cultural values and the world is going through the ‘one world’.
In Turkey, there is a TV serial named as’ Umutsuz Ev Kadınları’. It’s adapted from ‘Desperate Housewives’. There are various TV serials that are adapted from European countries. We can mention that there is cultural imperialism in the world in many ways like lifestyle, dressing style, the way of speech etc.
Because of the globalization the world goes directly to one way. We resemble each other and the differences between cultures decreases every day. In ‘Desperate Housewives’ we watch different women who have different lifestyles. In Europe, there are some cultural elements. For example, women can live with their boyfriends at the same house without marrying. In contrast in Turkey it’s not possible to live like European people. There are some traditions and everyone have to obey these rules. In cultural imperialism, the system obliges to behave us in the same way. In capitalist system, we have to wear like others, we have to go Starbucks to drink coffee or we have to eat in ‘Burger King’. If not, we start to alienate to world. The system rejects us. The loneliness and the other psychological problems occurs besides the economic, and political problems.
After World War 2, people tried to use media in a positive way. The societies began to change. The media has an important role in this formation. We can see that under-developed countries began to move on as “developed’ country and developed countries started to compete each other to become more powerful.
The change is not a same change for all countries. There is not a universal model for development. Each society develops its own strategy. While these changes occur, the modernity and the traditional tools try to be together. But we can say that at this point sometimes modernity has become dominant and traditional tools had to be assimilated.
Moreover, media offers some vertical and horizontal spaces. Because of the economic resasons, horizontal system offers various alternatives. For example we can see various factories in the same sector.
In vertical system, if you produce something cheaper than others you can discover different strategies. For example if you need cheap paper you can do various things; you can deal with a printing office etc.
Thanks to the modernity, we can see the changes step by step. When we think about modernity, the change is unavoidable but it’s best to catch modernity with protecting our own traditions if not we all have to adapt to the ‘monopoly world’.
‘The term of political economy’ is used since ‘war years’. In World War 1 and World War 2 there are opposite blocs and they were fighting each other for several reasons like political, economic, social etc. We can mention that the wealthiest country has the power to control others by economically, socially and so on. In global world, the ’emperialisation’ is unavoidable and its main subject is about ‘economy’. The most powerful countries like USA has to show its dominance by using cultural elements like cinema, television and press.
For example, Hollywood holds the power to manage the whole film industry. The promotion process of a Hollywood film consists of various elements such as newspapers and magazine advertorials, radio and television commercials, video games, online promotions etc. The important thing is that all of these elements are present all around the world so economy of scales applies. (Example of Avatar).
The ‘imperialisation’ doesn’t consist of only cultural industry. The most important thing that the more economic power you have the more you are dominant in various areas. In addition, we are not in an equal world any more. The under-developed countries are not supported enough by developed countries so the poor countries can’t make any progress in different areas.
In 1940’s Adorno Horkheimer created the concept of the culture industry. He analyzed the industrial production of cultural goods as a global movement producing culture as a commodity. Cultural products, films, radio programs and magazines. Contemporary civilization made everything look alike. In every instance the culture industry supplied standardized goods to satisfy myriad demands that were identified as distinction which production standards had to meet.
According to Adorno, we can mention that the standardization continued with theory of ‘alienation’. People alienated each other and moreover they alienated to their work, dress, food and the other things that the popular culture had served them. Nowadays, the consumerist system insists all the time to people what to consume. If you don’t drink a coffee from ‘Starbucks’ or if you don’t eat in some popular restaurants like ‘Burger King’, you can’t be someone popular so the rejection by society starts at this point. The ‘false consciousness ’causes to some bad moral things like suicides so on. The most important thing is to be aware of ‘the popular culture’ and to protect our values and traditions. The standardization of people or countries is mean of ‘destroying the cultures and the death of originality.
For Harold Innis, the key to social change is found in the development of communication media. He claims that each medium embodies a bias in terms of the organization and the control of information. Any empire or society is generally concerned with the duration over time and the extension in space.
Time-biased media, such as stone and clay, are durable and heavy. Since they are difficult to move, they do not encourage territorial expansion; however, since they have a long life, they do encourage the extension of empire over time. Innis associated these media with the customary, the sacred, and the moral. Time-biased media facilitate the development of social hierarchies, as archetypally exemplified by ancient Egypt. For Innis, speech is a time-biased medium.
Space-biased media are light and portable; they can be transported over large distances. They are associated with secular and territorial societies; they facilitate the expansion of empire over space. Paper is such medium; it is readily transported, but has a relatively short lifespan.
Every culture created their own way of communication according to time or space biased. We can say that some ways of communication were durable in contrast some of them are transported. For example Egyptians used papyrus or paper which were the durable and heavy and their culture and institutions were formed according to these’ time-based ‘media.
Writing on clay and on stone has been preserved more effectively than that on papyrus. Since durable commodities emphasize time and continuity
We can give an example that Les Ottomans were utilized firmans to communicate and they were written something in these firmans that we can learn something about their way of life, empirement, culture etc.We can interfere that the time and space biased media help to us learn something about different cultures and their ‘world’.
The term “agenda setting” is defined by Dearing and Rogers (1996) as a process of “an ongoing competition among issue protagonists to gain attention of media professionals the public and policy elites.”
Agenda setting has attracted mass communication researchers because it seems to offer an alternative to the search for directional media effects on individual attitudes and behavior change.
McCombs and Show concluded that the mass media exerted a significant influence on what voters considered the major issues of the campaign.
In fact we may say the basic assumptions underlie most research on agenda setting; one of them is the press and the media don’t reflect reality and they filter and shape it. The other one is media concentration on a few issues and subjects leads to public to perceive those issues as more important than other issues.
“The agenda setting” is used by many politicians or people who have dominance in a society to attract many people from one way to another or actually to take away from realities.
For example, In Turkey when relations with European Union were present, the government calls attention to ‘turban’ and people lost focus on EU’s subject and they start to argue another topic which is not exactly related to our relations with Europe.
I think this is a politic behavior that AKP tries to adapt us because they are successful to confuse European and Turkish people with this ‘agenda setting’. European people think that Turkey is a country where people can’t solve their internal problems. Besides, Turkish people focus on the argument on ‘turban’ and they can’t think other way.
According to ‘Lowery and Defleur(1995)US Surgeon General’.
The practical issue of media effects identified by the violence and agression portrayed in content has been the object of so much research that it requires to be treated separetly at this point. The kinds of effect that are generally suspected are mainly of an unintended and short-term character, although longer terms consequences in the way of behaviour patterns and cultural change are also possible. In its earliest days media research was strongly driven by the search for evidence of harm to young people from the frequent representation of crime and agression. Each new popular medium has given rise to a new wave of alarm about its possible effects.
Television content is heavily saturated with violence and children are spending more and more time exposed to violent content. Overall, the evidence supports the htpothesis that the viewing of violent entertainment increases the likelihood of agressive behaviour.
I think that the violence spreads out consistently by aid of media’s effect. When we look news on TV, we can see in many countries, children attack schools or murder their professor or schoolmates. For example in 2007, in U.S a student murdered 32 other students in Virginia Technical University. When we see this we are paralyzed. According to this we can understand how media has power on children. They can affect easily by a film or by news to create a virtual world in their mind. Moreover there are many elements of media that children can be affected by. For example, in cartoons the violence is very disturbing. There are always some people who fight each other or rake with guns so this directs children to do something bad. The most important question is why this harm makes them happy and how the television helps to create this area?
He based his approach to the difficulties of intercultural communication on personal observations in the field as an officer in a regiment of African-American soldiers during World War2. Laying the foundations for proxemics,Hall highlightened the various languages and codes, ‘the silent languages’ that characterize every culture; the languages of time, space, material possessions, modes of friendship and of reaching agreement.
According to this quotation we may say that communication is based on various ways of acts. We may communicate with our gestures, with our movements or with the aid of a language. Moreover we can communicate in silence. The silence is a different way to communicate whenever it tends to move someone or something each other and it helps to create relations between different cultures.
I think that our gestures, behaviors and also our ‘silence ’ helps to communicate with other people whether we know them or not. Of course we create different spaces to discover someone or something and this help us to interact with different people or cultures.
Alienation. C. Wright Mills argued that one of the characteristic features of contemporary American social structure was ‘its systematic creation and maintenance of estrangement from society and selfhood (1951: 340). In building his argument around the conditions of modern work he drew upon Marx – and upon American writers such as Thoreau. He contrasts traditions of craftsmanship (which at work had become the preserve of miniscule groups of professionals, and in leisure had been trivialized into ‘hobbies’) with the routinized activity of modern work.
As tool becomes machine, man is estranged from the intellectual potentialities and aspects of work; and each individual is routinized in the name of increased and cheaper per unit productivity. The whole unit and the meaning of time is modified…. The introduction of office machinery and sales devices has been mechanizing the office and the salesroom, the two big locales of white-collar work…. None of the features of work as craftsmanship is prevalent in office and salesroom, and, in addition, some features of white-collar work, such as the personality market, go well beyond the alienating conditions of wage-work. (Mills 1951: 226-7)
In 1950’s, the term of ‘the alienation’ became very popular.I would say after the industrialisation, the ‘system of production’ has changed as well as the human and the term of power.
The human started to alienate new culture and new power. Productivity and human became separated from each other. In fact human estranged his own product. He couldn’t accept his own product and this leads to unsocialization so this happiness ends with powerty of ‘a being human’.